Bernie Sanders: Ezrahut K’fulah

Author Note: If I were going to vote, I would vote for Bernie Sanders. But, the truth is always first.

Possession of multiple citizenship automatically protects you from being subject to sole diplomatic rule. By obtaining recognition as a country citizen, you obtain the right to seek physical, political and in some cases, financial assistance from that country. Furthermore because citizenship is regarded an equal humanitarian right, no citizenship may supersede another.

There is no other country in the world that allows members of its national government to be a citizen of two different nations at the same time, except the United States. The dual citizen status can only apply to citizens of Israel, and no other country. This change to US law was made possible by Supreme Court Justice Abe Fortas, a Johnson appointee, who later had to resign from the Supreme Court.

Bernard Sanders was born on September 8, 1941, in Brooklyn, one of New York City’s five boroughs. His father, Elias Sanders, was born on September 14, 1904 in Słopnice, Poland (then, until 1918, in the Austro-Hungarian province of Galicia), to a Jewish family; in 1921 he immigrated to the United States at the age of 17. His mother, Dorothy Sanders (née Glassberg), was born in New York City on October 2, 1912, to Polish and Russian Jewish immigrant parents.

http://www.cnn.com/2016/02/09/politics/bernie-sanders-kibbutz-volunteer-israel/

Israeli newspaper Haaretz dug up a 1990 interview with Sanders. In the article, Sanders claimed he spent several months in 1963 volunteering at Shaar Ha’amakim. The kibbutz was a cornerstone of Israeli society in the decades before and after the nation was founded in 1948. Shaar Ha’amakim is near Haifa, a 90-minute drive from Jerusalem near the northern border with Lebanon. The small community, population around 800, is nestled amongst green hills and is located just minutes from modern retail stores and restaurants. It was founded by Jewish immigrants in 1935

Senator, you have dual citizenship with Israel, Rehm began

Well, no, I do not have dual citizenship with Israel. I’m an — I don’t know where that questioning came from. I am an American citizen, and I have visited Israel on a couple of occasions. No, I’m an American citizen, period.

Transcript: https://michaelruark.wordpress.com/2016/04/24/bernie-on-dual-citizenship/

http://www.aaci.org.il/articlenav.php?id=34

A person who comes to Israel on an Oleh (immigrant) visa or changes to the status of Oleh while in Israel automatically acquires Israeli citizenship unless he files a declaration refusing it within three months of his arrival or change of status. In the latter case, he becomes a permanent resident, non-citizen. Otherwise, he automatically acquires Israeli citizenship at the end of the three months, retroactive to the date of arrival in Israel or change of status. It is also possible to waive the three month waiting period, but that is not recommended.

http://forward.com/news/israel/332946/revealed-at-last-inside-the-kibbutz-where-bernie-sanders-lived-and-learned/

Sanders’ time on the kibbutz, where he lived for several months with his ex-wife, Deborah Messing (born Deborah Shiling) is referenced in virtually every profile of the candidate.

On February 4, national security journalist Yossi Melman unearthed a 1990 interview with the candidate in the Israeli Haaretz newspaper, where he revealed that it was Shaar HaAmakim.

Founded in 1935 by Romanian and Yugoslavian Jewish immigrants, Shaar HaAmakim was part of Hashomer Hatzair, a socialist youth movement. The kibbutz was affiliated with Mapam, a political party to the left of Labor.

http://www.birthrightisrael.com/visitingisrael/Pages/Eligibility.aspx

  • You are not eligible if you have been to Israel for approximately three months or longer* since the age of 12.
  • If you were born in Israel or are an Israeli citizen you are only eligible if you left Israel before the age of 12.
  • If you were born in Israel or have ever held Israeli citizenship or have held an Israeli passport you are not eligible unless you prove by official documentation that you left Israel before the age of 12.

http://www.visa-law.co.il/immigration-to-israel/

The laws relevant to entering and residing in Israel for different purposes are the Law of Entry to Israel -1952 and the Law of Return -1950. In addition, the Citizenship Law -1952 details possible options for becoming a citizen.

Based on the above laws, immigration to Israel is mainly possible per Aliyah process, a process available to Zakaey Shvut , persons eligible under The Law of Return with Jewish roots. Clause 4A(a) of the Law of Return states as follows:

The rights of a Jew under this law, and the rights of an Ole under the C itizenship Law -1952, and the rights of a Ole under any other law, are given to the child or grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew the spouse of a child and grandchild of a Jew; Except a person who was born Jewish and out of his free will converted his religion.

Therefore, according to the Law of Return the right to live and settle in Israel is given to eligible persons per the law and definition above. Eligible persons per the law of Return may choose between a process for persons considering settlement which provides a B/1 Work Visa for several years, or a process which provides temporary residence while considering Aliyah, and also makes them eligible for social rights such as Health Care. In addition, the eligible person may choose to make Aliyah, whether with the help of the Jewish Agency abroad or individually at the Ministry of Interior offices in Israel. The Aliyah process includes presenting personal documents and proof of Jewish roots. In general, most Jews and Zakaey Shvut are eligible to make Aliyah and to receive Israeli citizenship.

I understand from a list we have gotten that you are on that list. Forgive if that is….

Now that’s some of the nonsense that goes on in the Internet, but that is absolutely not true.

Interesting. Are there members of Congress who do have dual citizenship, or is that part of the fable?

I honestly don’t know, but I have read that on the Internet. You know, my dad came to this country from Poland at the age of 17 without a nickel in his pocket, loved this country. I am, you know, I get offended a little bit by that comment, and I know it’s been on the Internet. I am an American — obviously an American citizen, and I do not have any dual citizenship.

Polish nationality law is based primarily on the principle of jus sanguinis. Children born to at least one Polish parent acquire Polish citizenship irrespective of place of birth. The concept of citizenship refers to the state of belonging, and is something other than nationality (ethnicity).

Israel allows its citizens to hold dual (or multiple) citizenship. A dual national is considered an Israeli citizen for all purposes, and is entitled to enter Israel without a visa, stay in Israel according to his own desire, engage in any profession and work with any employer according to Israeli law.

In general, Israel’s nationality follows jus sanguinis as the primary mechanism through which a person may obtain citizenship, rather than jus soli.

  • Jus sanguinis (right of blood) is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is not determined by place of birth but by having one or both parents who are citizens of the state.
  • Jus soli, meaning ‘right of the soil’, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship.

Despite this limitation, descendants of an Israeli national born abroad may be eligible to Israeli citizenship through other methods, such as the Law of Return.

The Law of Return 5710-1950 was enacted by the Knesset, Israel’s Parliament, on July 5, 1950, The Law declares the right of Jews to come to Israel: “Every Jew has the right to come to this country as an oleh.” Follow-up legislation on immigration matters was contained in the Nationality Law of 1952. The Law of Return was modified in 1970 to extend the right of return to non-Jews with a Jewish grandparent, and their spouses.

The law since 1970 applies to those born Jews (having a Jewish mother or maternal grandmother), those with Jewish ancestry (having a Jewish father or grandfather) and converts to Judaism (Orthodox, Reform, or Conservative denominations—not secular—though Reform and Conservative conversions must take place outside the state, similar to civil marriages).

Law of Return
http://www.richw.org/dualcit/faq.html
It is interesting to note that Israel’s “Law of Return” confers Israeli citizenship automatically, without the immigrant having to apply for it, attend any ceremony, or swear any oath of allegiance. The Israeli law may originally have been written this way to encourage American Jews to move to Israel; they could, in theory, argue that they had not explicitly requested Israeli citizenship and were thus still entitled to keep their US citizenship.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vance_v._Terrazas

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afroyim_v._Rusk

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_v._Wong_Kim_Ark

Aliyah (Hebrew: עֲלִיָּה aliyah, “ascent”) is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew). Also defined as “the act of going up”—that is, towards Jerusalem—”making Aliyah” by moving to the Land of Israel is one of the most basic tenets of Zionism. The opposite action, emigration from the Land of Israel, is referred to in Hebrew as yerida (“descent”). The State of Israel’s Law of Return gives Jews and their descendants automatic rights regarding residency and Israeli citizenship.

“As somebody who is 100 percent pro-Israel, in the long run,” Sanders said, “we are going to have to treat the Palestinian people with respect and dignity.”

Law of Return (Amendment No. 2) 5730-1970*

Addition of sections 4A
and 4B
1. In the Law of Return, 5710-1950**, the following sections shall be inserted after section 4:“Rights of members of family

4A. (a) The rights of a Jew under this Law and the rights of an oleh under the Nationality Law, 5712-1952***, as well as the rights of an oleh under any other enactment, are also vested in a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew, except for a person who has been a Jew and has voluntarily changed his religion.

(b) It shall be immaterial whether or not a Jew by whose right a right under subsection (a) is claimed is still alive and whether or not he has immigrated to Israel.

(c) The restrictions and conditions prescribed in respect of a Jew or an oleh by or under this Law or by the enactments referred to in subsection (a) shall also apply to a person who claims a right under subsection (a).

Definition

4B. For the purposes of this Law, “Jew” means a person who was born of a Jewish mother or has become converted to Judaism and who is not a member of another religion.”

http://jlb.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/06/16/jlb.lsv027.full

The Population Registry Law 5725–1965 requires residents to enter both their le’oum (nationality or ethnic group) and religion in the registry. A recent Israeli Supreme Court case affirmed an earlier precedent and distinguished le’oum or nationality, from secular citizenship.

Immigration of Jews in Israel is governed by Israel’s Law of Return 5710–1950, which provides: ‘Every Jew has the right to come to this country as an oleh [Jewish immigrant]’.  ‘[I]n conjunction with the Citizenship Law, … it enables every Jew to become a citizen of the state, almost automatically’. For the first twenty years, the law did not define who was a Jew, and thus who had the right to immigrate. In 1970, the Law was amended to include a definition of Jew: ‘For the purposes of this Law, “Jew” means a person who was born of a Jewish mother or has become converted to Judaism and who is not a member of another religion’. The 1970 amendment also expanded citizenship rights to family members of eligible Jews:

The rights of a Jew under this Law … as well as the rights of an oleh under any other enactment, are also vested in a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew, except for a person who has been a Jew and has voluntarily changed his religion.

The amendment represented a compromise between the religious and secular perspectives. The amendment adopted the religious definition of a Jew—someone with a Jewish mother or someone who has converted to Judaism. However, the amendment extended citizenship rights to those who are referred to as ‘seed of Israel’—‘anyone either born to a non-Jewish mother and a Jewish father, or having at least one Jewish grandparent’. Thus, the law grants citizenship rights both to those who are religiously Jewish but would not have Jewish biological links, such as Jews who converted, as well as those who do not have religious or biological connections to Jewishness, such as spouses of Jews.

The 1970 amendment was a response to a controversial Israeli Supreme Court case, Shalit v. Minister of the Interior, which permitted children of a Jewish father and non-Jewish mother to register as part of the Jewish le’oum or ethnic group in the Population Registry. ‘[T]he amended law “overruled” the Shalit case by adopting the religious law test of defining who is considered Jewish, but the law saved the spirit of the Shalit decision by’ granting non-Jewish family members the right to immigrate under the Law of Return.

Since the law was amended, and especially in the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, Jews from the FSU have arrived to Israel en masse. Many had assimilated and secularized in the FSU and intermarried with non-Jewish Russians. Thus, although many Russian immigrants are Jewish by descent, and are entitled to citizenship, their Jewishness is questioned by the Ministry of Interior, and they are often required to show additional proof. These individuals face even more skepticism by rabbinic authorities, as many are not considered Jews under Orthodox Jewish law.

The number of immigrants who are eligible to immigrate under the Law of Return, but are not religiously Jewish is quite staggering. Demographer Sergio Della Pergola suggested that by a religious definition there are roughly 14 million Jews around the world, but over 23 million people eligible for citizenship under the Law of Return. This potentially leaves a large segment of the population in limbo—eligible for immigration and citizenship but ineligible to legally marry and participate as full members of society. The move to mandate genetic tests of Jewishness as a requirement for immigration threatens to increase this divide because it cannot grant Jewish status recognized by the rabbis.

The Yakerson case revealed that the State of Israel may rely on genetic tests as proof of Jewishness. A genetic definition of Jewishness, however, breaks with traditional halakhic law and reconfigures the terms of authentic belonging in the Jewish State. Although Masha was ultimately denied access to the 10-day Birthright trip to Israel, her older sister, Dina, reportedly immigrated to Israel as an oleh in 1990.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israeli_nationality_law

Israel allows its citizens to hold dual (or multiple) citizenship.

A dual national is considered an Israeli citizen for all purposes, and is entitled to enter Israel without a visa, stay in Israel according to his own desire, engage in any profession and work with any employer according to Israeli law. An exception is that under an additional law added to the Basic Law: the Knesset (Article 16A) according to which Knesset members cannot pledge allegiance unless their foreign citizenship has been revoked, if possible, under the laws of that country.

A child of an Israeli citizen (including children born outside of Israel as first generation out of Israel) is considered an Israeli citizen. Persons born outside Israel are Israeli citizens if their father or mother holds Israeli citizenship, acquired either by birth in Israel, according to the Law of Return, by residence, or by naturalization.

Citizenship by descent, on the principle of jus sanguinis, is limited to only one generation born abroad. Despite this limitation, descendants of an Israeli national born abroad may be eligible to Israeli citizenship through other methods, such as the Law of Return.

Adults may acquire Israeli citizenship through naturalization. To be eligible for naturalization, a person must have resided in Israel for three years out of the previous five years. In addition, the applicant must have a right to reside in Israel on a permanent basis. All naturalization requests are, however, at the discretion of the Minister of the Interior. The Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law of 2003 suspended this practice in the case of citizens of a number of countries, which some have termed “enemy nationals”. In January 2012, the Supreme Court of Israel upheld the validity of the law.

Israel traditionally automatically granted citizenship to spouses of Jewish Israeli citizens by virtue of the Law of Return. However, this practice was suspended in 1999 due to immigration concerns if the Jewish spouse had done Aliyah previous to the marriage or is an Israeli citizen by birth.

From inside Israel the Israeli parent(s) must go to the Misrad Hapnim (Ministry of the Interior) with the child and the child’s original birth certificate that lists the Israeli parent(s) as the parents of the child. In addition the Israeli parent(s) need to bring their Teudat Zehut (National ID) or their Israeli Passport and the child’s foreign passport. If the parents are not married or did not register their marriage with Misrad Hapnim, or Misrad HaChutz (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) both of the parents must be in attendance at Misrad HaPnim. After all of the information is verified the child will be issued a Mispar Zehut (Identity Number) and an Israeli Passport. If the child is 16 years old he/she will also receive a Teudat Zehut. It is important to note that in Israel there is no separation of religion and state. If the mother is not Jewish by Orthodox standards then the child can not be registered as Jewish, nor can the child be married to a Jewish person inside of Israel.

http://nomadcapitalist.com/2014/03/11/how-to-get-second-citizenship-israel-law-of-return/

Upon your arrival in Israel, there is a ninety day waiting period before you can be awarded citizenship. However, citizenship is automatically granted unless you specifically ask the government not to grant you Israeli citizenship.

You are not required to remain in Israel during the ninety day period, and are free to travel on your current passport so long as you obtain an exit permit, which is typically a formality.

Even if you choose not to claim your Israel citizenship, you will retain the “oleh” status you arrived on, which confers permanent resident status.”

https://www.knesset.gov.il/laws/special/eng/return.htm

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Politics/Other_Law_Law_of_Return.html

The Law of Return, granting every Jew in the world the right to settle in Israel, was passed by the Knesset on July 5, 1950, and published in Sefer HaChukkim (Book of Laws) No. 51, p. 159. Two amendments were later added on to the Law of Return – one passed August 23, 1954, and the other passed March 10, 1970.


Right of Aliyah 1. Every Jew has the right to come to this country as an oleh**.
Oleh’s visa 2. (a) Aliyah shall be by oleh’s visa.(b) An oleh’s visa shall be granted to every Jew who has expressed his desire to settle in Israel, unless the Minister of Immigration is satisfied that the applicant

(1) is engaged in an activity directed against the Jewish people; or
(2) is likely to endanger public health or the security of the State.

Oleh’s certificate 3. (a) A Jew who has come to Israel and subsequent to his arrival has expressed his desire to settle in Israel may, while still in Israel, receive an oleh’s certificate.(b) The restrictions specified in section 2(b) shall apply also to the grant of an oleh’s certificate, but a person shall not be regarded as endangering public health on account of an illness contracted after his arrival in Israel.
Residents and persons born in this country 4. Every Jew who has immigrated into this country before the coming into force of this Law, and every Jew who was born in this country, whether before or after the coming into force of this Law, shall be deemed to be a person who has come to this country as an oleh under this Law.
Implementation and regulations 5. The Minister of Immigration is charged with the implementation of this Law and may make regulations as to any matter relating to such implementation and also as to the grant of oleh’s visas and oleh’s certificates to minors up to the age of 18 years.

DAVID BEN-GURION
Prime Minister

MOSHE SHAPIRA
Minister of Immigration

YOSEF SPRINZAK
Acting President of the State
Chairman of the Knesset


Amendment 5714-1954

Amendment of section 2(b) 1. In section 2 (b) of the Law of Return, 5710-1950** –

(1) the full stop at the end of paragraph (2) shall be replaced by a semi-colon, and the word “or” shall be inserted thereafter ;
(2) the following paragraph shall be inserted after paragraph (2):
“(3) is a person with a criminal past, likely to endanger public welfare.”.

Amendment of sections 2
and 5
2. In sections 2 and 5 of the Law, the words “the Minister of Immigration” shall be replaced by the words “the Minister of the Interior”.

 

MOSHE SHARETT
Prime Minister

YOSEF SERLIN
Minister of Health
Acting Minister of the Interior

YITZCHAK BEN-ZVI
President of the State


 

Amendment No. 2 5730-1970*

Addition of sections 4A
and 4B
1. In the Law of Return, 5710-1950**, the following sections shall be inserted after section 4:“Rights of members of family

4A. (a) The rights of a Jew under this Law and the rights of an oleh under the Nationality Law, 5712-1952***, as well as the rights of an oleh under any other enactment, are also vested in a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew, except for a person who has been a Jew and has voluntarily changed his religion.

(b) It shall be immaterial whether or not a Jew by whose right a right under subsection (a) is claimed is still alive and whether or not he has immigrated to Israel.

(c) The restrictions and conditions prescribed in respect of a Jew or an oleh by or under this Law or by the enactments referred to in subsection (a) shall also apply to a person who claims a right under subsection (a).

Definition

4B. For the purposes of this Law, “Jew” means a person who was born of a Jewish mother or has become converted to Judaism and who is not a member of another religion.”

Amendment of section 5 2. In section 5 of the Law of Return, 5710-1950, the following shall be added at the end: “Regulations for the purposes of sections 4A and 4B require the approval of the Constitution, Legislation and Juridical Committee of the Knesset.”.
Amendment of the Population Registry Law, 5725-1965 3. In the Population Registry Law, 5725-1965****, the following section shall be inserted after section 3:“Power of registration and definition

3A. (a) A person shall not be registered as a Jew by ethnic affiliation or religion if a notification under this Law or another entry in the Registry or a public document indicates that he is not a Jew, so long as the said notification, entry or document has not been controverted to the satisfaction of the Chief Registration Officer or so long as declaratory judgment of a competent court or tribunal has not otherwise determined.

(b) For the purposes of this Law and of any registration or document thereunder, “Jew” has the same meaning as in section 4B of the Law of Return, 5710-1950.

(c) This section shall not derogate from a registration effected before its coming into force.”.

 

GOLDA MEIR
Prime Minister
Acting Minister of the Interior

SHNEUR ZALMAN SHAZAR
President of the State

With the inception of the State of Israel, two thousand years of wandering were officially over. Since then, Jews have been entitled to simply show up and request to be Israeli citizens, assuming they posed no imminent danger to public health, state security, or the Jewish people as a whole. Essentially, all Jews everywhere are Israeli citizens by right.
In 1955, the law was amended slightly to specify that dangerous criminals could also be denied that right.
In 1970, Israel took another historic step by granting automatic citizenship not only to Jews, but also to their non-Jewish children, grandchildren, and spouses, and to the non-Jewish spouses of their children and grandchildren. This addition not only ensured that families would not be broken apart, but also promised a safe haven in Israel for non-Jews subject to persecution because of their Jewish roots.
The Law of Return, 5710-1950
  1.  Every Jew has the right to come to this country as an Oleh.
    1. Aliyah shall be by Oleh’s visa.
    2. An Oleh’s visa shall be granted to every Jew who has expressed his desire to settle in Israel, unless the Minister of Immigration is satisfied that the applicant —
      1. is engaged in an activity directed against the Jewish people; or
      2. is likely to endanger public health or the security of the State.
    1. A Jew who has come to Israel and subsequent to his arrival has expressed his desire to settle in Israel may, while still in Israel, receive an Oleh’s certificate.
    2. The restrictions specified in section 2 (b) shall apply also to the grant of an Oleh’s certificate; but a person shall not be regarded as endangering public health on account of an illness contracted after his arrival in Israel.
  2. Every Jew who has immigrated into this country before the coming into force of this Law, and every Jew who was born in this country, whether before or after the coming into force of this Law, shall be deemed to be a person who has come to this country as an Oleh under this Law.
  3. The Minister of Immigration is charged with the implementation of this Law and may make regulations as to any matter relating to such implementation and also as to the grant of Oleh’s visas and Oleh’s certificates to minors up to the age of 18 years.

 

The Law of Return, 5714-1955: 1st Amendment
  1. In section 2 (b) of the Law of Return, 5710-1950 :
    1. The full stop at the end of paragraph (2) shall be replaced by a semicolon, and the word “or” shall be inserted thereafter;
    2. The following paragraph shall be inserted after paragraph (2):
      • “(3) is a person with a criminal past, likely to endanger public welfare.”
  2. In sections 2 and 5 of the Law, the words “the Minister of Immigration” shall be replaced by the words “the Minister of the Interior”.

 

The Law of Return, 5730-1970: 2nd Amendment
  1. 1. In the Law of Return, 5710-1950, the following sections shall be inserted after section 4:
    “Rights of members of family:
    4A.
    a. The rights of a Jew under this Law and the rights of an Oleh under the Nationality Law, 5710 – 1950, as well as the rights of an Oleh under any other enactment, are also vested in a child and grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew, except for a person who has been a Jew and has voluntarily changed his religion.
    b. It shall be immaterial whether or not a Jew by whose right a right under subsection (a) is claimed is still alive and whether or not he has immigrated to Israel.
    c. The restrictions and conditions prescribed in respect of a Jew or an Oleh by or under this Law or by the enactments referred to in subsection (a) shall also apply to a person who claims a right under subsection (a).
    Definition:
    4B. For the purposes of this Law, “Jew” means a person who was born of a Jewish mother or has become converted to Judaism and who is not a member of another religion.”
  2. In section 5 of the Law of Return, 5710 – 1950, the following shall be added at the end: “Regulations for the purposes of sections 4A and 4B require the approval of the Constitution, Legislation and Judicial Committee of the Knesset.”
  3. In the Population Registry Law, 5725-1965, the following section shall be inserted after section 3:
    3A.

    1. A person shall not be registered as a Jew by ethnic affiliation or religion if a notification under this Law or another entry in the Registry or a public document indicates that he is not a Jew, so long as the said notification, entry or document has not been converted to the satisfaction of the Chief Registration Officer or so long as declaratory judgment of a competent court or tribunal has not otherwise determined.
    2. For the purposes of this Law and of any registration or document thereunder, “Jew” has the same meaning as in section 4B of the Law of Return, 5710-1950.
    3. This section shall not derogate from a registration effected before its coming into force.

http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/mfa-archive/1950-1959/pages/law%20of%20return%205710-1950.aspx

Law of Return 5710-1950

Law of Return 5710-1950

Right of aliyah** 1. Every Jew has the right to come to this country as an oleh**.
Oleh’s visa 2. (a) Aliyah shall be by oleh’s visa.(b) An oleh’s visa shall be granted to every Jew who has expressed his desire to settle in Israel, unless the Minister of Immigration is satisfied that the applicant

(1) is engaged in an activity directed against the Jewish people; or(2) is likely to endanger public health or the security of the State.

Oleh’s certificate 3. (a) A Jew who has come to Israel and subsequent to his arrival has expressed his desire to settle in Israel may, while still in Israel, receive an oleh’s certificate.(b) The restrictions specified in section 2(b) shall apply also to the grant of an oleh’s certificate, but a person shall not be regarded as endangering public health on account of an illness contracted after his arrival in Israel.
Residents and persons born in this country 4. Every Jew who has immigrated into this country before the coming into force of this Law, and every Jew who was born in this country, whether before or after the coming into force of this Law, shall be deemed to be a person who has come to this country as an oleh under this Law.
Implementation and regulations 5. The Minister of Immigration is charged with the implementation of this Law and may make regulations as to any matter relating to such implementation and also as to the grant of oleh’s visas and oleh’s certificates to minors up to the age of 18 years.


DAVID BEN-GURION
Prime Minister

MOSHE SHAPIRA
Minister of Immigration

YOSEF SPRINZAK
Acting President of the State
Chairman of the Knesset
* Passed by the Knesset on the 20th Tammuz, 5710 (5th July, 1950) and published in Sefer Ha-Chukkim No. 51 of the 21st Tammuz, 5710 (5th July. 1950), p. 159; the Bill and an Explanatory Note were published in Hatza’ot Chok No. 48 of the 12th Tammuz, 5710 (27th June, 1950), p. 189.

** Translator’s Note: Aliyah means immigration of Jews, and oleh (plural: olim) means a Jew immigrating, into Israel.

Law of Return (Amendment 5714-1954)*

Amendment of section 2(b) 1. In section 2 (b) of the Law of Return, 5710-1950** –(1) the full stop at the end of paragraph (2) shall be replaced by a semi-colon, and the word “or” shall be inserted thereafter ;

(2) the following paragraph shall be inserted after paragraph (2):

“(3) is a person with a criminal past, likely to endanger public welfare.”.

Amendment of sections 2
and 5
2. In sections 2 and 5 of the Law, the words “the Minister of Immigration” shall be replaced by the words “the Minister of the Interior”.

MOSHE SHARETT
Prime Minister

YOSEF SERLIN
Minister of Health
Acting Minister of the Interior

YITZCHAK BEN-ZVI
President of the State
* Passed by the Knesset on the 24th Av, 5714 (23rd August, 1954) and published in Sefer Ha-Chukkim No. 163 of the 3rd Elul, 5714 (1st September, 1954) p. 174; the Bill and an Explanatory Note were published in Hatza’ot Chok No. 192 of 5714, p. 88.

** Sefer Ha-Chukkim No. 51 of 5710, p. 159, LSI vol. IV, 114.

Law of Return (Amendment No. 2) 5730-1970*

Addition of sections 4A
and 4B
1. In the Law of Return, 5710-1950**, the following sections shall be inserted after section 4:“Rights of members of family

4A. (a) The rights of a Jew under this Law and the rights of an oleh under the Nationality Law, 5712-1952***, as well as the rights of an oleh under any other enactment, are also vested in a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew, except for a person who has been a Jew and has voluntarily changed his religion.

(b) It shall be immaterial whether or not a Jew by whose right a right under subsection (a) is claimed is still alive and whether or not he has immigrated to Israel.

(c) The restrictions and conditions prescribed in respect of a Jew or an oleh by or under this Law or by the enactments referred to in subsection (a) shall also apply to a person who claims a right under subsection (a).

Definition

4B. For the purposes of this Law, “Jew” means a person who was born of a Jewish mother or has become converted to Judaism and who is not a member of another religion.”

Amendment of section 5 2. In section 5 of the Law of Return, 5710-1950, the following shall be added at the end: “Regulations for the purposes of sections 4A and 4B require the approval of the Constitution, Legislation and Juridical Committee of the Knesset.”.
Amendment of the Population Registry Law, 5725-1965 3. In the Population Registry Law, 5725-1965****, the following section shall be inserted after section 3:“Power of registration and definition

3A. (a) A person shall not be registered as a Jew by ethnic affiliation or religion if a notification under this Law or another entry in the Registry or a public document indicates that he is not a Jew, so long as the said notification, entry or document has not been controverted to the satisfaction of the Chief Registration Officer or so long as declaratory judgment of a competent court or tribunal has not otherwise determined.

(b) For the purposes of this Law and of any registration or document thereunder, “Jew” has the same meaning as in section 4B of the Law of Return, 5710-1950.

(c) This section shall not derogate from a registration effected before its coming into force.”.

GOLDA MEIR
Prime Minister
Acting Minister of the Interior

SHNEUR ZALMAN SHAZAR
President of the State
* Passed by the Knesset on 2nd Adar Bet, 5730 (10th March, 1970) and published in Sefer Ha-Chukkim No. 586 of the 11th Adar Bet, 5730 (19th March, 1970), p. 34; the Bill and an Explanatory Note were published in Hatza’ot Chok No. 866 of 5730, p. 36.

** Sefer Ha-Chukkim of 5710 p. 159 – LSI vol. IV, p. 114; Sefer Ha-Chukkim No. 5714, p. 174 – LSI vol. VIII, p. 144.

*** Sefer Ha-Chukkim of 5712, p. 146 ; LSI vol. VI, p. 50.

**** Sefer Ha-Chukkim of 5725, p. 270 ; LSI vol. XIX, p. 288.

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