Capture Rapture: John Darby 1830


  1. Rapture doctrine is one of the most recent “new doctrines” in the history of the Church. The only doctrine more recent is the invention of the sinner’s prayer for salvation by Billy Sunday in 1930, which was made popular by Billy Graham in 1935.
  2. The fact that John Nelson Darby invented the pre-tribulation rapture doctrine around 1830 AD is unquestionably true. All attempts to find evidence of this wild doctrine before 1830 have failed, with a single exception: Morgan Edwards wrote a short essay as a college paper for Bristol Baptist College in Bristol England in 1744 where he confused the second coming with the first resurrection of Revelation 20 and described a “pre-tribulation” rapture. However Edwards ideas, which he admitted were brand new and never before taught, had no influence in the modern population of the false doctrine. That prize to goes to Darby.
  3. Prior to 1830, no church taught it in their creed, catechism or statement of faith.
  4. Darby has had a profound impact on religion today, since Darby’s “secret rapture” false doctrine has infected most conservative, evangelical churches. While the official creeds and statements of faith of many churches either reject or are silent about Rapture, neither do they openly condemn this doctrine of a demon from the pulpit.
  5. While not all dispensationalists believe in the Rapture. All those who teach the Rapture also believe in premillennialism. Both groups use Israel’s modern statehood status of 1948 to be a beginning of a countdown to the end.
  6. All premillennialists, rapturists and dispensationalists alive today believe the Bible reveals the general era of when Christ will return. The date setters of the 1800’s based their predictions upon speculative arrangements of numbers and chronologies in the Bible. Today’s date setters without exception wrongly believe that Israel gaining state hood in 1948 fulfilled Bible prophecy and that Christ would return within one generation.
  7. There are two kinds of premillennialists: Those “Date setters” and “Date Teasers”. “Date setters”, set specific dates which are in fact a countdown clock to the extinction of their own ministries. (William Miller, Charles Russell, Ronald Weinland, Harold Camping, etc.) “Date teasers”, share the same rhetoric of urgency that the “end is very soon”, but refuse to lock into a specific date. (Jack Van Impe, Hal Lindsay, Tim LaHaye, Pentecostals, Baptists, Grant Jefferies, Christadelphians.)
  8. Most of the TV preachers who promote rapture and/or “date set” all wrongly believe they are a prophet of God with special illumination. Pentecostals believe they are inspired directly from the Holy Spirit as modern day prophets. Baptists believe they are illuminated with guidance from the Holy Spirit through the Calvinist doctrine of Irresistible grace.
  9. Christians reject all these false notions of God illuminating man and rely upon the pages of the Bible alone as a sole source of conduct and doctrine

False assumptions of Rapture and premillennialism.

  1. False: The kingdom is something distinct from the church. Truth: The kingdom is the church which was established on the day of Pentecost in 33 A.D. We are in the kingdom now: Col 1:13; Rev 1:6,9.
  2. False: Reviving the Roman empire to keep time prophecies of Dan 2,7,8,9 from failing. Truth: The final kingdom Daniel saw was Rome. God set up his kingdom during the Roman empire which began in 30 BC and was destroyed in 397 AD. The kingdom is the church which was started on Pentecost.
  3. False: Daniel saw 13 kingdoms: Truth: Daniel saw 4 kingdoms: Babylon, Medo-persia, Greece and Rome. The last kingdom had ten toes, representing 10 Caesars/rulers/kings not 10 additional kingdoms for a total of 13 kingdoms.
  4. False: Christ will return in one generation from the time Israel became a nation in 1948. Truth: Mt 23:34; 24:34 speak about how the Herodian temple in Jerusalem will be destroyed within one generation. This indeed came to pass with the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD by Titus. Notice the parallel: “But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then recognize that her desolation is near. ” (Luke 21:20)
  5. False: Israel never possessed all the land promised to Abraham and must return to fulfill this promise. Truth: God made three promises to Abraham and all three were fulfilled at the time of Joshua – Solomon. “And the LORD gave them rest on every side, according to all that He had sworn to their fathers, and no one of all their enemies stood before them; the LORD gave all their enemies into their hand. Not one of the good promises which the LORD had made to the house of Israel failed; all came to pass. ” (Joshua 21:44-45)
  6. False: The Mosaic Old Testament temple will be rebuilt on the temple mount in Jerusalem complete with animal sacrifices and Aaronic priests. Truth: The Old Testament was nailed to the cross and abolished: Heb 8:13. To go back to animal sacrifices is to deny Christ: “And I testify again to every man who receives circumcision, that he is under obligation to keep the whole Law. You have been severed from Christ, you who are seeking to be justified by law; you have fallen from grace. ” (Galatians 5:3-4) Restoring animal sacrifices nullifies the sacrifice of the blood of Christ on the cross which was the last blood sacrifice for all future eternity: “Every priest stands daily ministering and offering time after time the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins; but He, having offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, SAT DOWN AT THE RIGHT HAND OF GOD, ” (Hebrews 10:11-12)
  7. False: Entering the 7th millennium in 2000 AD Truth: The bible indicates that the world is about 6119 years old in 2011.
  8. False: Y2K bug of 1999 AD Truth: Wild speculation that TV preachers and Rapturists used to whip up end time predictions. It was a non-event… again.
  9. False: The prophetic clock stopped in the 69th week of Daniel’s prophecy when the Jews rejected Christ as their earthly king because God wasn’t expecting the Jews to reject Jesus. Each of the first 69 weeks was a period of seven years, but he last week has already been almost 2000 years. The prophetic clock starts ticking again at the “Rapture” which is the beginning of the 70th week of Daniel. There will be 3 ½ years of peace followed by 3 ½ years of tribulation.  Truth: God foresaw everything just as it happened in the gospels. A prophecy clock cannot stop or slow down or change rate of time passing. The 70th week continued and came to and end before 40 AD. Rapturists believe that the entire New Testament period is something that God had to think up on the fly when the Jews rejected Jesus as their king. So God had to think up the church age as a stop gap measure until God could try a second time to get the Jews to accept Jesus as king during the millennium. Notice that the “prophetic clock stops” when the Jews crucified Jesus and it starts at the Rapture. The reason the clock had to stop, is because of all the time prophecies were supposed to be fulfilled at the first advent of Christ, but the Jews thwarted God’s plan. Notice the clock stops at the 69th week of Daniel 9 which was happily ticking at a constant pace since it began with the decree of Cyrus which was 483 years (69 x 7 years). Then 2000 years pass and the clock suddenly starts ticking down the final 7 years. This is nothing short of incredible, but in fact, this entire concept of God failing to foresee the Jews rejecting Jesus as King is the cornerstone of Rapture and Premillennial theology.
  10. False: The church is a temporary after thought while the prophetic clock is stopped. The church is not prophesied in the Old Testament and will be abolished at the second coming. The prophetic clock starts ticking again at the “Rapture” which is the beginning of the 70th week of Daniel. There will be 3 ½ years of peace followed by 3 ½ years of tribulation. Truth: The church is part of God’s eternal purpose and will endure forever into the future: “so that the manifold wisdom of God might now be made known through the church to the rulers and the authorities in the heavenly places. This was in accordance with the eternal purpose which He carried out in Christ Jesus our Lord, ” (Ephesians 3:10-11) God will be glorified in the church for all future eternity: “to Him be the glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all generations forever and ever. Amen. ” (Ephesians 3:21) Those who believe the church is a temporary stop gap measure, fail to comprehend that the church is the bride of Christ and that the wedding day is the second coming. “that He might present to Himself the church in all her glory, having no spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that she would be holy and blameless. ” (Ephesians 5:27) Rapturists teach that the church ends at the second coming, when in fact the church continues forever as the bride of Christ. Those who believe the church was thought up at the last minute when the Jews rejected Jesus as their king fail to realize that our salvation is inside the church, which is the body of Christ and will continue forever. If the church ends at the second coming, then so does the body of Christ. So Rapture and premillennialism is rank heresy invented by John Darby in 1830 AD.
  11. False: The Bible tells us when the Rapture/second coming of Christ will occur. Truth: “The Bible Guarantees it” as a sure thing makes a mockery of Christ and causes people to lose faith in the Bible.
  12. False: There is a secret number code in the bible that can be used to predict the second coming by using combinations of 3 ½, 6, 7, 10, 30, 40, 66, 70, 230, 280, 666, 980, 1000, 1200, 1260, 1290, 1335, 2520, 2300, 6000, 7000 etc. These numbers are randomly assigned various time units including minutes, hours, days, weeks, years, millenniums. Truth: Endless numerology has been used randomly to make endless date predictions which have all failed but sold a lot of books and made a lot of con artists rich.
  13. False: Special illumination from God others do not possess Truth: If any man claims special revelation from God who directly communicates with him, let him show this by performing miracles. Bible prophets always proved it by their power, not their words. “But I will come to you soon, if the Lord wills, and I shall find out, not the words of those who are arrogant but their power. For the kingdom of God does not consist in words but in power. ” (1 Corinthians 4:19-20) Until men like Camping perform a miracle, he is a candidate for stoning according the Old Testament law he believes will be restored.
  14. False: New Doctrines are being revealed today that were not understood even 20 years ago. Truth: Continuous revelation: “Early and latter rains”, “new light”. For example, Harold Camping said, “The Biblical evidence is too overwhelming and specific to be wrong. The scriptural evidence needed to know the exact day could not be known before 1988, the year the ‘Church age’ ended. The Bible indicates prior to this year that date could not be known.” The Jehovah’s Witnesses are trained to ignore past false predictions by claiming new light that “gets brighter and brighter”. Rather it is “black light” or flickering/contradictory light. Camping uses this “new light” “latter rain” theology to justify his previous prediction of 1994 failing. Incredibly Camping says: “In the nineteen years since “1994?” was written, the biblical evidence for 2011 has greatly solidified. Today there is no longer any question, May 21, 2011 is the day in which Jesus Christ will return.


1.       All Rapturists need a complex and detailed time chart to graph out their sequence of events. Here are original documents that map out the end.  The one pictured above is a general overview chart to give the basic idea.

2.       Notice that the entire New Testament period is something that God had to think up on the fly when the Jews rejected Jesus as their king. So God had to think up the church age as a stop gap measure until God could try a second time to get the Jews to accept Jesus as king during the millennium. Notice that the “prophetic clock stops” when the Jews crucified Jesus and it starts at the Rapture. The reason the clock had to stop, is because of all the time prophecies were supposed to be fulfilled at the first advent of Christ, but the Jews thwarted God’s plan. Notice the clock stops at the 69th week of Daniel 9 which was happily ticking at a constant pace since it began with the decree of Cyrus which was 483 years (69 x 7 years). Then 2000 years pass and the clock suddenly starts ticking down the final 7 years. This is nothing short of incredible, but in fact, this entire concept of God failing to foresee the Jews rejecting Jesus as King is the cornerstone of Rapture and Premillennial theology. The church is part of God’s eternal purpose and will endure forever into the future: “so that the manifold wisdom of God might now be made known through the church to the rulers and the authorities in the heavenly places. This was in accordance with the eternal purpose which He carried out in Christ Jesus our Lord, ” (Ephesians 3:10-11) God will be glorified in the church for all future eternity: “to Him be the glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all generations forever and ever. Amen. ” (Ephesians 3:21) Those who believe the church is a temporary stop gap measure, fail to comprehend that the church is the bride of Christ and that the wedding day is the second coming. “that He might present to Himself the church in all her glory, having no spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that she would be holy and blameless. ” (Ephesians 5:27) Rapturists teach that the church ends at the second coming, when in fact the church continues forever as the bride of Christ. Those who believe the church was thought up at the last minute when the Jews rejected Jesus as their king fail to realize that our salvation is inside the church, which is the body of Christ and will continue forever. If the church ends at the second coming, then so does the body of Christ. So Rapture and premillennialism is rank heresy invented by John Darby in 1830 AD.


  1. William Miller’s chart (Seventh-day Adventists) that predicted the end in 1844 AD. VIEW
  2. Seventh-day Adventist rapture chart 2010 AD: VIEW
  3. Charles Russell’s (Jehovah’s Witnesses) chart the predicted the end in 1914 AD. VIEW When Christ didn’t come, Russell claimed he was right, but that Christ came invisibly! Up until about 1996, JW’s taught that the world would end within one generation after 1914 AD. Even the May 15, 1984 Watchtower magazine echoed this false prediction. Like all cults and date setters, they quietly stopped making the prediction based upon one generation after 1914 and the mindless lemmings keep going door to door with their every changing version of lies and deception.
  4. Bill Brown Ministries rapture chart: VIEW
  5. Tom Stewart of “What Saith The Scriptures” predicted the rapture on Sunday May 31, 1998 AD. In a disclaimer on his website, he says his date was wrong, but no off my much time and that the end if VERY, VERY NEAR!: VIEW
  6. Millennium Ark rapture chart: VIEW
  7. LDS, Latter Day Saints, Mormons: The year 2000 AD was date teased:  VIEW
  8. Donald Perkins Bible prophecy chart VIEW
  9. Jack Van Impe claims he has been awarded several PhD’s and we are certain they are all in “Date Teasing” No one date teases better than Jack. He teased 2000 AD and is currently teasing 2012 AD. Her is Van Impe’s “Israel invasion prophecy chart”: VIEW
  10. Christadelphian end times prophecy chart: Christadelphians have a long history of date setting, but their last prediction was around 2000 AD. For Christadelphians, the end has been very soon for 150 years. VIEW
  11. Ronald Weinland predicted the end on April 17, 2008. He claimed to be a prophet, apostle and that he and his wife the two witnesses of Revelation. When that failed, he is currently he predicting the second coming on May 27, 2012. Here is Weinland’s current end of the world chart: VIEW
  12. Harold Camping predicted the end of the world in 1994 and again on May 21, 2011. Camping believed he had learned special insights that no one else on earth had understood from the Bible. In fact, Camping is a numerologist who see patterns in numbers that are meaningless. While convincing to his lemmings who sold their houses and maxed out their credit cards and gave the money to Camping to spread the word through a global advertising campaign, his insights make him worthy of being stoned as a false prophet. Camping is an agent of Satan to destroy faith in the Bible. VIEW
  13. Ronald Weinland predicted the end on April 17, 2008. He claimed to be a prophet, apostle and that he and his wife the two witnesses of Revelation. When that failed, he is currently he predicting the second coming on May 27, 2012. Here is Weinland’s current end of the world chart: VIEW
  14. Rapture Bible proof texts refuted:
  15. Every Bible verse used by Rapture advocates are the same passages that Christians have used to prove the second coming with will being about the resurrection of all the dead, both wicked and righteous, translation of the living into spirit beings, the destruction of the earth, the great judgment and heaven and hell… all at the same time. You will see in every one of their rapture proof texts, that Rapture is not actually specified. Instead it is the good old second coming as taught historically by the church back to the first century, not some new doctrine revealed for the first time to the Plymouth Brethren through John Darby in 1830 AD.
  16. There are shockingly few actual Bible texts that Rapture advocates actually use to attempt to prove rapture is taught in the bible.
  17. Equally shocking is that many of those who teach the Rapture believe in continuous revelation. This means that they do not even need any Biblical passages to prove their new doctrine. They, as prophets, believe God has revealed it to them as a brand new Christian doctrine, that the first century Christians never believed, the apostles never taught. So they will openly admit they have little or nothing in the bible to support their new rapture theology. Of course they fail the test of a true prophet to possess the ability to perform miracles or at least a prophecy or two to come true.
  18. See also: Overview of how Rapture and pre-millennialism contradicts the Bible
  19. Here is a complete collection of Bible passages used to prove the Rapture:
Comment Passage
No pre-tribulation Rapture in 1 Thess 4:15-17! This is the only proof text that is ever given for any direct support for the Rapture. The word for “caught up” is “harpásō” in the Greek and is also used of when Paul was “caught up” into 3rd heaven to see visions in 2 Cor 12:2. However this verse simply teaches what all Christians have taught about the events at the second coming namely: resurrection of all the dead, translation of the living into spirit beings, destruction of the earth, judgement, heaven and hell… all in a twinkling of an eye at the last trump. “For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord. ” (1 Thessalonians 4:15-17)
No Rapture in Jn 5:28, in fact it teaches the opposite! False teachers of the Rapture say that only Christians are raised, then after 1000 years, the wicked are raised. This verse clearly teaches that in the same “twinkling of an eye” (an hour, not 1000 years) all the dead will be raised. “”Do not marvel at this; for an hour is coming, in which all who are in the tombs will hear His voice, ” (John 5:28)
No Rapture in this Dan 12:2, just that all the dead, both righteous and wicked will be raised to judgment at the last day. “Many of those who sleep in the dust of the ground will awake, these to everlasting life, but the others to disgrace and everlasting contempt. “Those who have insight will shine brightly like the brightness of the expanse of heaven, and those who lead the many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever. ” (Daniel 12:2-3)
No Rapture in 1 Cor 15:21-28, in fact it teaches the opposite! It says that the second coming will be the end, not 1000 years before the end. Its says that Christ is reigning now, but will give up his reign at the second coming and hand it over to the Father. Rapture teaches that Christ is not reigning now, but will begin to reign at the second coming. This is exactly opposite to what the Rapture false teachers believe. “For since by a man came death, by a man also came the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, after that those who are Christ’s at His coming, then comes the end, when He hands over the kingdom to the God and Father, when He has abolished all rule and all authority and power. For He must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet. The last enemy that will be abolished is death. For HE HAS PUT ALL THINGS IN SUBJECTION UNDER HIS FEET. But when He says, “All things are put in subjection,” it is evident that He is excepted who put all things in subjection to Him. When all things are subjected to Him, then the Son Himself also will be subjected to the One who subjected all things to Him, so that God may be all in all. ” (1 Corinthians 15:21-28)
No Rapture in this 1 Cor 15:51ff! It teaches that at the second coming the dead will be raised into immortal spirit beings and the living shall be changed into immortal spirit beings. “Behold, I tell you a mystery; we will not all sleep, but we will all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality. ” (1 Corinthians 15:51-53)
See also: Overview of how Rapture and pre-millennialism contradicts the Bible


  1. Rapture doctrine invented by John Nelson Darby in 1830:
  2. John Nelson Darby invented the false doctrine of the Rapture 1830-1833 AD and popularized it in 1850 to which it infected us today. While Morgan Edwards had also invented the doctrine in a college essay in 1744 AD, his work was isolated, forgotten and irrelevant as an etiology of the modern popularity of pre-tribulation Rapture doctrine. Darby invented the doctrine without any influence or reliance on Edwards.
  3. Morgan Edwards wrote this short essay as a paper for Bristol Baptist College in Bristol England in 1744. After he immigrated to the USA, the essay was published in Philadelphia in 1788. It is clear that his school paper went as unnoticed as his formal publication in 1788 AD. While Edwards may in fact be the earliest person on earth to invent the pre-tribulation rapture, it is equally clear that Darby invented the same doctrine in 1830 AD and made it popular 100 years later in 1850 AD. “The distance between the first and second resurrection will be somewhat more than a thousand years.: I say, somewhat more; because the dead saints will be raised, and the living changed at Christ’s ” appearing in the air” (1 Thes. iv, 17); and this will be about three years and a half before the millennium, as we shall see hereafter: but will he and they abide in the air all that time? No: they will ascend to paradise, or to some one of those many ” mansions in the father’s house of God” (John xiv: 2), and to disappear during the foresaid period of time. … V. That spot of earth which. Christ will make the seat of his governments Mount Zion, in Jerusalem. Jerusalem and the temple will be rebuilt, as we shall prove by and by and that temple will be the house of Christ kingdom. … VI. The risen and changed saints shall reign with Christ on earth a thousand years. I do not mean that all will be kings; for some are to be Christ’ s priests, some judges, some rulers over cities, some over his household, some over his goods, (as wee shall see anon) and some his special chorister and musicians. (Two Academical Exercises on Subjects Bearing the following Titles; Millennium, Last-Novelties, Morgan Edwards, 1744 AD, 1788 AD)
  4. Darby notes that the doctrine “popped into his head” in 1830 AD. Before this, no one had ever heard of a secret rapture doctrine.
  5. Darby is one of the founders of the “Plymouth Brethren” movement at the same time he first conceived his rapture theology. Therefore the Plymouth Brethren are inseparable from Rapture theology and always will be and should be avoided.
  6. Modern influences of Darby include Dallas Theological Seminary, Bob Jones University, Hal Lindsey, Tim LaHaye,  Jack Van Impe and Harold Camping, the Scofield Reference Bible.
  7. Darby’s Rapture theology has infected almost every conservative protestant church, except for a few groups like the Churches of Christ, who rejected it as a non-Biblical doctrine and have denounced it ever since like all other man made doctrines.

Proof Rapture was the creation of John Nelson Darby in 1830:

  1. The simplest way to prove that Rapture does not predate Darby or the Plymouth Brethren church, is the admission of the Plymouth Brethren church today in their own words: “A number of doctrines that are now widely held within evangelical circles were first discovered by the Brethren (post 1830 AD) or were promoted and propagated by the Brethren. In no particular order these include: pre-tribulational rapture, dispensationalism” (Plymouth Brethren: Theological contributions of the Brethren: FAQ #16)
  2. “The pretribulation rapture……historians are still trying to determine how or where Darby got it. . . . Possibly, we may have to settle for Darby’s own explanation. He claimed that the doctrine virtually jumped out of the pages of Scripture once he accepted and consistently maintained the distinction between Israel and the church”. (Timothy P. Weber, Living In The Shadow Of The Second Coming: American Premillennialism 1875-1982, 1983 AD, p 21-22).
  3. John Nelson Darby commenting on 2 Thess. 2:1-2 in 1850: “It is this passage which, twenty years ago, [1830 AD] made me [Darby] understand the rapture of the saints before- perhaps a considerable time before- the day of the Lord, that is, before the judgment of the living.” (The Rapture of the Saints: Who Suggested It, Or Rather On What Scripture? William Kelly, The Bible Treasury, New Series, vol. 4, p. 314-318, quoting John Nelson Darby commenting on 2 Thess. 2:1-2 in 1850)
  4. “When the theory of a secret coming of Christ was first brought forward (about the year 1832), it was adopted with eagerness; it suited certain preconceived opinions, and it was accepted by some at that which harmonized contradictory thoughts, whether such thoughts, or any of them, rested on the sure warrant of God; written Word”. (The Hope of Christ’s Coming: How is it Taught in Scripture and Why?, S. P. Tregelles, p 35)
  5. “Where did he [Darby] get it? The reviewer’s answer would be that it was in the air in the 1820s and 1830s among eager students of unfulfilled prophecy”. (F. F. Bruce, Book Review of “The Unbelievable Pre-Trib Origin” in The Evangelical Quarterly, (Vol. XLVII, No. 1). Note: Bruce is a well known scholar who himself is a member of the Plymouth Brethren which Darby started)
  6. “Until brought to the fore through the writings and preaching and teaching of a distinguished ex-clergyman, Mr J. N. Darby, in the early part of the last century, it [rapture theology] is scarcely to be found in a single book or sermon through a period of sixteen hundred years”. [230-1830 AD] (Harry Ironside, The Mysteries Of God, 1908).
  7. “About 1830 a new school arose within the fold of Premillennialism that sought to overthrow what, since the Apostolic Age, have been considered by all premillennialist as established results, and to institute in their place a series of doctrines that had never been heard of before. The school I refer to is that of ‘The Brethren’ or ‘Plymouth Brethren,’ founded by J. N. Darby.” (Alexander Reese, The Approaching Advent of Christ, page 18)
  8. Robert Cameron: “Now, be it remembered, that prior to that date, no hint of any approach to such belief can be found in any Christian literature from Polycarp down…. Surely, a doctrine that finds no exponent or advocate in the whole history and literature of Christendom, for eighteen hundred years after the founding of the Church – a doctrine that was never taught by a Father or Doctor of the Church in the past – that has no standard Commentator or Professor of the Greek language in any Theological School until the middle of the Nineteenth century, to give it approval, and that is without a friend, even to mention its name amongst the orthodox teachers or the heretical sects of Christendom – such a fatherless and motherless doctrine, when it rises to the front, demanding universal acceptance, ought to undergo careful scrutiny before it is admitted and tabulated as part of ‘the faith once for all delivered unto the saints.” (Robert Cameron, Scriptural Truth About The Lord’s Return, page 72-73).
  9. E. R. Sandeen: “Darby introduced into discussion at Powerscourt (1833) the ideas of a secret rapture of the church and of a parenthesis in prophetic fulfillment between the sixty-ninth and seventieth weeks of Daniel. These two concepts constituted the basic tenets of the system of theology since referred to as dispensationalism” (E.R. Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism 1800-1930, University of Chicago Press, 1970)

Churches and TV Preachers who teach the Rapture false doctrine:

Churches that teach pre-tribulation Rapture:

  1. Southern Baptist church: FAQ#18: “What is the SBC’s stance on the end times? There is no official stance in the SBC beyond what you find in the Baptist Faith and Message. The views among Southern Baptists regarding the end times are broad. If you surveyed Southern Baptists, you would likely find many who hold to the “Pre-Tribulational” view of the rapture, others who hold to a “Mid-Trib” view, some to a “Post-Trib” rapture, some who hold to historical premillennialism, and perhaps even a few who don’t agree with any of these views.
  2. Baptist: The Doctrinal Statement of the Cornerstone Baptist Church: “The Rapture of the Church: We teach the personal, bodily return of our Lord Jesus Christ before the seven-year tribulation (1 Thessalonians 4:16; Titus 2:13) to translate His church from this earth (John 14:1-3; 1 Corinthians 15:51-53; 1 Thessalonians 4:15-5:11) and, between this event and His glorious return with His saints, to reward believers according to their works (1 Corinthians 3:11-15; 2 Corinthians 5:10). The Tribulation Period: We teach that immediately following the removal of the church from the earth (John 14:1-3; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18) the righteous judgments of God will be poured out upon an unbelieving world (Jeremiah 30:7; Daniel 9:27; 12:1; 2 Thessalonians 2:7-12; Revelation 16), and that these judgments will be climaxed by the return of Christ in glory to the earth (Matthew 24:27-31; 25:31-46; 2 Thessalonians 2:7-12). At that time the Old Testament and tribulation saints will be raised and the living will be judged (Daniel 12:2-3; Revelation 20:4-6). This period includes the seventieth week of Daniel’s prophecy (Daniel 9:24-27; Matthew 24:15-31; 25:31-46).”
  3. Church of God article #14: “The Millennial Reign of Christ The second coming of Christ includes the rapture of the saints, which is our blessed hope, followed by the visible return of Christ with His saints to reign on the earth for one thousand years (Zech. 14:5; Matt. 24:27, 30; Rev. 1:7; 19:11-14; 20: 1-6). This millennial reign will bring the salvation of national Israel (Ezek. 37: 21, 22; Zeph. 3:19, 20; Rom. 11:26, 27) and the establishment of universal peace (Isa. 11: 6-9: Ps. 72: 3-8; Micah 4:3,4).”
  4. The Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada (PAOC): Statement of Fundamental and Essential Truths: “THE RAPTURE The rapture, the blessed hope of the church, is the imminent coming of the Lord in the air to receive to Himself His own, both the living who shall be transformed, and the dead in Christ who shall be resurrected. 1 Cor. 15:51-57; Phil 3:20-21; 1 Thess. 4:13-18; Titus 2:13 This event takes place before the wrath of God is poured out during the tribulation. Believers then will appear before the judgement seat of Christ to be judged according to faithfulness in Christian service. Rom. 14:10-12; 1 Cor. 3:11-15; 2 Cor. 5:9-10”
  5. The Independent Fundamental Churches of America (IFCA) Article #15. THE SECOND ADVENT OF CHRIST: We believe in that “Blessed Hope”, the personal, imminent, pre-tribulation, and premillennial coming of the Lord Jesus Christ for His redeemed ones; and in His subsequent return to earth, with His saints, to establish His Millennial Kingdom (1 Thessalonians 4:13-18; Zechariah 14:4-11; Revelation 19:11-16; 20:1-6; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; 5:9; Revelation 3:10).
  6. Plymouth Brethren: Theological contributions of the Brethren: FAQ#16: “A number of doctrines that are now widely held within evangelical circles were first discovered by the Brethren (post 1830 AD) or were promoted and propagated by the Brethren. In no particular order these include: pre-tribulational rapture, dispensationalism”
  7. Congregational Methodist church, Our Statement of Faith: “The Second Coming of Christ: We believe that the culmination of human history is designed by God and will occur according to His timing. The literal interpretation of scripture reveals that Christ will rapture His faithful in the twinkling  of an eye, after which the anti-christ will be revealed, and the wrath of God poured out upon the earth. After seven years of tribulation, Christ is revealed in His glory and comes to reign for one thousand years on the earth. After this millennial reign, the earth will be destroyed, and a new heaven and new earth will be provided for the faithful to live in the presence of God forever.”
  8. Christadelphians do not teach the rapture, however they have a long history of setting dates for the end of the world and are strongly premillennial. John Thomas (1805-1871) set the date for the end of the world in 1848 and 1864 AD. John Thomas, the sects founder, wrote in 1848 AD: “The judgment upon Ireland has been siting since 1786. That crisis was the beginning of a retribution of seventy-five years. This period is called ‘THE END’ – the end of the last period, of the continuance of modern Europe, as organised into ten kingdoms, and the ”Holy Roman Empire’ in the days of Charlemagne.  A.D. 1786 was the beginning of the end, 1848 the concluding of the end, and 1864 the termination of the period.  The events of these seventy-five years are the fulfilment of the following words concerning modern Europe: ‘The Judgment shall sit and they shall take away of his (the Little Horn’s or Holy Roman) dominion, to consume and destroy it to the end.’ … After 1864 Ireland and the rest of the world will enter upon a new era, in which peace, righteousness, and blessedness will reign in the midst of the nations.” (Gospel Banner, John Thomas, November 1864) Thomas revised this date he set in 1848 even before it came to pass for in 1854 Thomas wrote: “But in a few years, that is, about 1866, when the 1335 years terminate, he [the prophet Daniel] will ‘arise to his inheritance’ in the Kingdom of God. (Anatolia, John Thomas, 1854, p. 97). Robert Roberts, John Thomas’ successor, strongly and widely predicted that the world would end in 1910 AD. A Christadelphian publication called, “Logos leaflet No 14” (1988) suggested the end in May 1988, as the 40th year since Israel became a nation. The leaflet’s front cover says, ‘ISRAEL 1948-1988  40 YEARS OF DESTINY’.  And lower down, ‘This Generation (40 years) shall not pass away till all be fulfilled. Behold, the shooting forth of the “fig tree” (a symbol representing Israel) – Commencing 1948. This generation (40 year period) “Shall not pass away till all be fulfilled.” (p. 3). A key Christadelphian book called, “Christendom Astray” was published in 1958 and contained chapter 16 entitled, “Evidence that the End is Near”. This chapter has been deleted from the current editions. Today Christiadelphians have learned to stopped setting dates although they recently “looked with quiet hope” at 2000 AD as the second coming. Here is the Christadelphians current end times prophecy chart that highlights 2000 AD as the end: VIEW. Like all date setters, there is a slow drifting of expected dates for the second coming, that the average Christadelphian seems willingly blind to admit. A simple survey of Christadelphian history shows that their predicted dates change every generation so that end is always, “very soon”. Christadelphians are typical of other sects that had their origin in the “John Thomas Rapture Era”.
  9. Millerites/Adventists, Russelites/Jehovah’s Witnesses: “In 1843, people sold their homes and businesses in anticipation of the imminent return of Christ. They were the followers of William Miller, a self-taught Bible student from New York. Here is Miller’s rapture chart. Miller understood the 2,300 days of Daniel 8:14 to refer to the number of years until the return of Christ. Previously, scholars had agreed that this prophecy was fulfilled in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes. But Miller insisted that it would be fulfilled in his day. In 168 B.C., just as God had prophesied through Daniel, the Seleucid king Antiochus Epiphanes entered Jerusalem to punish the Jews. He put an end to sacrifices at the temple, and rededicated the temple to Zeus. Daniel 8:14 does not literally refer to 2,300 “days” (KJV, NKJV), but to 2,300 “evenings and mornings” (NASB, NIV, ESV). From the time that Antiochus entered Jerusalem until the temple was cleansed and proper sacrifices were reinstituted, roughly 2,300 days passed. The number of evening and morning sacrifices that were prevented totaled roughly 2,300 (of each). Either reading of the text, then, finds fulfillment in history. Nonetheless, William Miller believed that the cleansing of the temple mentioned in Daniel 8 was the purification of the earth by fire at Christ’s second coming. Miller assumed that all prophecies referring to “days” must mean “years.” Adding 2,300 years to the time of Daniel’s prophecy gave Miller a date for Christ’s return between March 21, 1843, and March 21, 1844. He began to teach this view and gained a wide following in the northeastern United States. Despite the great excitement that Miller generated, March 21, 1844, came and went without the return of Christ. Miller was devastated, but one of his followers went back through the calculations and found what he believed to be an error. A new date was set: October 22, 1844. When October 1844 did not pan out, either, some of Miller’s followers abandoned the movement. Many, however, tried to find a new explanation. They were too embarrassed to admit their error. They had invested too much to be wrong. Ellen G. White eventually founded the Seventh-day Adventists, leading them to the conclusion that Jesus had returned invisibly in 1844, and that he would soon make his presence known visibly. Another group that tried to hold to the 1844 date was led by Jonas Swendahl; they were known as the Second Adventists. They believed that 1844 marked the date, not of Jesus’ return, but of the beginning of the last generation. Swendahl taught that Jesus would return in 1874.  One of Swendahl’s followers was a former Presbyterian named Charles Taze Russell. Charles Russell’s (Jehovah’s Witnesses) chart the predicted the end in 1914 AD. VIEW. When 1874 came and went, Russell concluded that thirty years was not long enough for a generation. So he added seventy years to 1844 and concluded that Jesus would return in 1914. This and other differences led him to split from the Second Adventists and to launch Zion’s Watchtower and Herald of Christ’s Presence. His followers became known as the International Bible Students, and they went about the country with the message, “Millions now living will never die!” His followers were to leave their churches and fellowship together. All churches were considered apostate, but God had supposedly provided a new channel for their instruction, Zion’s Watchtower Tract Society. What began as the International Bible Students has become the Jehovah’s Witnesses. The date of 1914 was changed to 1925, then to 1941, and then to 1975. What began as calling Christians out of their churches to prepare for Christ’s return became an anti-Christian cult. I believe we are seeing something very similar happening today in Harold Camping.” (Jason Wallace, New Horizons, February 2002) Today Seventh-day Adventist strongly predicted the rapture in 1980 AD VIEW
  10. Mormons: LDS, Latter Day Saints: Mormons were born the same year John Darby invented Rapture theology in 1830 AD and have a clear pattern of date setting in a premillennial system. They strongly viewed 2000 AD as a possible date for the end. Here is an example of their current date for the end: VIEW

TV/Radio Preachers and schools that teach the Pre-tribulation Rapture:

  1. The Scofield Reference Bible. The text of the Bible is the word of God, but the notes and comments twist and strain the scriptures in a shallow attempt to teach the rapture. Keep in mind this simple rule: All the verses they use to prove the rapture, are the same verses Christians have been using to show the good old second coming since the apostolic age.
  2. The Dallas Theological Seminary and Bob Jones University have been the centers of propagation of false doctrine of the Rapture.
  3. Hal Lindsey: Most famous for his book, “The Late, Great Planet Earth”, he is a multimillionaire through book sales where he made a general prediction that the world would end before the generation died who witnessed Israel becoming a nation in 1947. In his book, “Planet Earth – 2000 A.D.” Lindsay predicted the end before 2000 AD. Today he believes Barak Obama will live to see the anti-Christ walk the earth, even creating conditions for the anti-Christ to arise. Over the 50 years of publishing, Linsday has changed his predictions with each era. For example, he felt the hippie culture of the 60’s was a sign of the end and that Russia would be the force to conquer Jerusalem. Today all that is forgotten and the Muslims are the new key to world events leading up to the end. But don’t underestimate the influence of Lindsay. I remember non-Christians who had never read the Bible, buying The Late, Great Planet Earth and reading it believing it Bible truth.
  4. Tim LaHaye: Famous for his “Left Behind” series of movies that give a fictional portrayal of the Rapture. Book sales are reported to exceed 70 million. Although LaHaye doesn’t make specific end of the world date predictions like Harold Camping, neither does he discourage or criticize those who do. Why would he? It would hurt book sales!
  5. Jack Van Impe: Jack, self-proclaimed prophet, and his cute blonde side-kick wife Rexella, have been “rapture date teasing” by reading news headlines for many years as proof the end of the world is at hand. While he rejects specific date setting, he firmly believes we can know the “approximate time of the second coming”. He teaches the standard rapture pre-tribulation theology. Not wanting to risk sending his empire into extinction (like Harold Camping did when his prophecy failed in May 21, 2011) Van Impe never sets specific dates but general dates. He has publically stated that he rejects Camping’s May 21 prediction for the Rapture. Jack Van Impe never sets specific dates but he has a long history of engaging in what we call “date teasing”. This way he can say that current events strongly point to us keeping our eye on the rapture happening before 2000 AD and when the date passes, he can pick a new date to keep his deluded viewers salivating for more news. 2000 AD was a great opportunity to for Van Impe to glue the viewers to the TV given the changing of the Millennium and the Y2K hysteria that set in on 1999 and the popular prediction of the pagan cultist Nostradamus (d. 1566 AD).
  6. A 1993 video date teased with its title: “A.D. 2000 – The End?” The date of 2000 was chosen by him based upon the year Israel became a nation in 1948 + 1 generation: “Let’s figure that out again–1948.5 plus 51.4 equals 1999.9–around September of the year 1999. Now, we are not date-setters! Of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my father only (Matthew 24:36). But wait! Don’t say, `No one can know the APPROXIMATE time when Christ will return,’ for Jesus also said in verse 33 that we will know when it is near, even at the doors” (January-February 1993 issue of Perhaps Today magazine).
  7. Van Impe claimed that the year 2001 “will see the start of the Great Tribulation. Political chaos, natural disasters, nuclear war and the worldwide rise of Islam will usher in mankind’s final hour” (Jan-Feb 1997 issue of Perhaps Today).

iii.      Prior to January 1, 2000, Van Impe frequently predicted widespread global catastrophes and destruction resulting from the Y2K problem, which he believed to be a fulfillment of Bible prophecy. While such a prediction was rather predictable, the surprise to everyone was that NOTHING happened when the date pass. Billions had been spent certifying infrastructures and networks as “Y2K certified”. All the crazy talk that Jack and Rexella said about Y2K was forgotten by the viewers as he switched to his next date: “The dire warnings in this emergency video are gleaned exclusively from secular experts in over 300 reports. The facts: No event in history has connected mankind to one common adversary until now. The millennial bug jeopardizes our way of life in ways never imagined” (The 2000 Time Bomb, video).

  1. “I was going to make this video next year, around February, March. But the Holy Spirit awakened me a few months ago and warned me as to what was coming and that I should warn you. And I’ll tell you, this is perhaps the most important video you’ll ever receive concerning your own survival and what to do to prepare for what’s coming” (Jack Van Impe Presents, September 28, 1998).
  2. Although Nostradamus was a pagan cultic non-Christian mystic, Van Impe makes this incredible statement:  “Now, Nostradamus said that the king of terror would appear November of 1999. I believe Nostradamus knew his bible and knew what the six-day theory was, and so he could put it all together” (Jack Van Impe Presents, October 5, 1998).
  3. World War III in 2012 AD??? Currently however, Van Impe has been having a cerebral meltdown over the Muslim uprising starting in the Egypt and the other Arab nations as proof the end is so near! With the failure of his 2000 AD predictions that the “Holy Spirit showed him”, the Muslim uprising is profitable.  His latest date teasing video that makes him millions of dollars, is for World War III in 2012 AD. Yawn.
  4. Jack Van Impe’s current Israel invasion prophecy chart VIEW
  5. Grant Jeffreys: Another date teaser who teaches pre-tribulation rapture theology. “After thirty years of careful Bible study, I am convinced that the overwhelming evidence concerning the fulfillment of these predictions in our generation points to the return of Jesus Christ in our lifetime.” (Armageddon – Appointment With Destiny, Grant Jefferys, ch 15)
  6. Ronald Weinland travelled to Jerusalem on April 17, 2008. He announced that he and his wife were the two witnesses of Revelation. Ronald Weinland, who wrote “2008 – God’s Final Witness”, is a leader in the “Church of God, Preparing for the Kingdom of God” (CGPFK) an Armstrong splinter group. Weinland rejects Rapture doctrine and believes instead that all the saint of the world will flee to modern Petra Jordan, as a place of safety supposedly prophesied in Revelation 12:6. When his prophecies failed, he revised his timeline he stated Christ’s will now return on May 27, 2012 and that the tribulation began on September 20, 2009. Today, Weinland calls himself an apostle a prophet, the “Elijah who is to come” and one of the two witnesses of Revelation… his wife being the other witness. Weinland said before the 2008 date failed: “If it doesn’t come to pass…starting in April, 2008, then I’m nothing but a false prophet … (Ronald Weinland, 2008 – God’s Final Witness, Church of God) No surprise he never denounce himself as an agent of satan. Instead he reinterpreted his predictions, much like the Jehovah’s Witnesses did in 1914 and says he got it right after all. Currently he predicts the second coming on May 27, 2012. Here is Weinland’s current end of the world chart: VIEW
  7. Harold Camping: 55 Radio stations with headquarters in Texas. He wrote a book claiming 1994 was the end of the world. When that failed he again wrote a second book that the Rapture would take place on May 21, 2011. He enlisted the power of his 55 radio stations and purchased over 2000 full size bulletin boards across the USA. Harold Camping’s slogan, “THE BIBLE GUARENTEES IT: MAY 21, 2011” has made a mockery of Christ and the Bible. Camping has said, “The Biblical evidence is too overwhelming and specific to be wrong. The scriptural evidence needed to know the exact day could not be known before 1988, the year the ‘Church age’ ended. The Bible indicates prior to this year that date could not be known.” “The discovery of this information [by Camping after his 1994 prediction failed] built the foundation for what God would later reveal from the Bible as the date for the end. Judgment Day on May 21, 2011 is the culmination of five decades of intensive biblical study by Mr. Camping and other bible teachers who have discovered the same biblical data.” “Creation: 11,013 BC. Flood: 5011 BC. The end: May 21, 2011. The Biblical evidence is too overwhelming & specific to be wrong.” Camping uses his “new light” “latter rain” theology to justify his previous prediction of 1994 failing. Incredibly Camping says: “In the nineteen years since “1994?” was written, the biblical evidence for 2011 has greatly solidified. Today there is no longer any question, May 21, 2011 is the day in which Jesus Christ will return. What proof is there for the date of May 21, 2011? The date May 21, 2011 was derived solely from evidence found in the Bible. Mr. Camping saw God had placed, in Scripture, many important signs and proofs. These proofs alert believers that May 21st of 2011 is the date Christ will return for His people and begin a period of the final destruction of the world.” Here is the main page on Camping
  8. “In 1992, Harold Camping published the book 1994? Like Miller, he rejected the historic understanding of Daniel 8. The prophecy clearly describes the rise of the kingdom of Greece under Alexander the Great and the division of his empire among four successors. But instead of seeing the prophecy as fulfilled then, Camping transported its fulfillment to our own day.
  9. Like the Adventists and the Jehovah’s Witnesses, Camping he focused on the “hidden” meanings of texts, seeing pointers toward 1994 in the number of swine drowned in the Sea of Galilee and in the number of servants in Abraham’s house. Camping introduced 1994? with the following statement: “No book ever written is as audacious or bold as one that claims to predict the timing of the end of the world, and that is precisely what this book presumes to do.” No matter how audacious or bold, it was wrong.

iii.      September 6, 1994, came and went.  Camping seemed to back away from his false prophecy, but he has now decided that he was right all along. It was too bitter a pill to swallow to be wrong. Like the Jehovah’s Witnesses, he says that 1994 wasn’t the wrong date. We just have to add seven years to it!

  1. Like Russell, he is now telling Christians to leave their churches. All the churches are apostate. You should no longer trust your pastors and elders. You should abandon them and turn to the true channel of God’s Word, Family Radio. Like Jehovah’s Witnesses, you should simply fellowship together and await word from Oakland.  In these new fellowships, there is to be no discipline, no baptism, no communion, and no authority apart from Family Radio’s interpretation of the Bible. Mr. Camping rejects 1 Corinthians 11:26, which says that we are to proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes through the weekly observance of the Lord’s Supper.
  2. Harold Camping may not be the Watchtower Tract and Bible Society, but he builds on the same wrongheaded interpretations of Scripture, the same date-setting, the same recalculations, the same accusations of universal apostasy, and the same claim to be the last true channel of God’s Word. Despite the differences, both are heretical and schismatic, tearing apart Christ’s church.
  3. Like the Jehovah’s Witnesses, Mr. Camping accuses anyone who disagrees with him of not really believing the Bible. He accuses them of making an idol of their church. The true idol here is Mr. Camping. Will Christians read the Bible for themselves and search the Scriptures to know if these things are true, or will they blindly follow Mr. Camping into yet another false prophecy? And what will be the result for them if they do?” (Jason Wallace, New Horizons, February 2002)

vii.      Now Camping has set a new date of May 21, 2011 after 1994 failed.

  1. Darby’s Rapture theology has infected almost every conservative protestant church among the general membership. One clear exception is the Churches of Christ, who rejected it as a non-Biblical doctrine and have denounced it openly from the pulpit as a man-made doctrine.

Vain attempts to find Rapture in the church fathers and early Christians:

  1. Any attempt to find the Rapture theology in the historical writings of the church fathers or apologists if vain and futile. No church before 1830 AD taught the rapture, much less the early church. A simple reading of supposed examples of rapture in the church Fathers, shows no such thing. The claim is made, but if you read the original text, it says nothing of the rapture.
  2. Apostolic fathers believed that the 70 weeks of Daniel were fulfilled in the first century in Jesus Christ and did not look for a future fulfillment: Fulfillment of the 70 Weeks of Daniel 9
  3. Apostolic fathers  believed in the complete fulfillment of Mt 24 and the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD.
  4. Apostolic fathers and Early Christians on Revelation prophecies already fulfilled

Pseudo-Ephraem says Christians escape tribulation by death not rapture:

Overview of Pseudo-Ephraem:

  1. Here is the full text of both the Latin and Syraic versions of Pseudo-Ephraem.
  2. As you will see, Pseudo-Ephraem teaches that Christians escape tribulation by death not rapture!
  3. Rapture advocates use “Pseudo-Ephraem” as an example of rapture doctrine that was believed and taught in 375 AD. Such a use of Pseudo-Ephraem is wrong, unscholarly and desperate. But this desperation is because Pseudo-Ephraem is the only example they can find before 1830 of Rapture doctrine. Of course, Pseudo-Ephraem DOES NOT teach rapture or anything even close to it.
  4. The purpose of this section of the outline is to refute the claim by those who believe the rapture doctrine was taught before John Nelson Darby (born 18 November 1800, died 29 April 1882) who is singlehandedly responsible for influencing all the cults 19th century cults with their rapture theology and endless date setting that persists even to the present day.
  5. Pseudo-Ephraem is a forgery: There was a Christian named Ephrem or Ephraim who died in 373 AD. Pseudo-Ephraem is an 8th century or later pseudepigrapha falsely claiming to be written by the real Ephrem or Ephraim who had been dead for 400 years.
  6. There are several texts of Pseudo-Ephraem but the two most important texts are the Syriac and the Latin texts. These two texts are almost as different in content as they are in the language they were written.
  7. The Syriac text of Pseudo-Ephraem describes the Islamic invasion so this text cannot be earlier than about 700 AD: “The progeny of Hagar, the handmaid of Sarah; Who hold fast to the covenant with Abraham, The husband of Sarah and Hagar. Set in motion, he (Ishmael) comes in the name of the ram, The herald of the Son of Destruction. (Syraic text of Pseudo-Ephraem)
  8. The Latin text of Pseudo-Ephraem quotes and relies upon the Pseudo-Methodius which also heavily documents the Islamic invasion that started in 622 AD. So here we have one pseudepigrapha (Pseudo-Ephraem) that relies upon another pseudepigrapha (Pseudo-Methodius) apocalypse Methodius of Olympus who died in 311 AD. In other words, one fraud is quoting from another.

The Syraic text of Pseudo-Ephraem does not teach Rapture theology since the saints suffer and die during the tribulation:

  1. “Nation will rise up against nation, And kingdom against kingdom. Lawlessness will be sovereign on earth And the defiled will pursue after the saints. People will openly apostatize And augment the left side; The righteous ones will suffer indignities From those who belong to the side of the sinners.” (Syraic text of Pseudo-Ephraem)
  2. Here we have death as an escape for the persecution, saints suffering and the devil on earth with Christians during tribulation. “Pronouncing the good fortune of the deceased Who had avoided the calamity: ‘Blessed are you for you were borne away (to the grave) And hence you escaped from the afflictions! But as for us, woe is us! For when we die, Vultures will serve as escort for us!’ And if the days of that time were not shortened, The elect would never survive The calamities and afflictions. For Our Lord revealed (and) disclosed to us In his Gospel when He said: ‘Those days will be shortened For the sake of the elect and the saints.’ And when he has harassed the whole of creation [including Christians], (When) the Son of Destruction (has bent it) to his will, Enoch and Elijah will be sent That they might persuade the Evil One. With a gentle question The saints will come before him, In order to expose the Son of Destruction Before the assemblies surrounding him: ‘If you are indeed God, Tell us what we ask of you: Where is the place that you have hidden The elders Elijah and Enoch?’ The Evil One will respond and say To the saints at that time….” (Syraic text of Pseudo-Ephraem)
  3. Christians are killed by the devil during the tribulation: “Then the Evil One will become enraged With the saints at that time; He will draw his terrible sword And sever the necks of the righteous ones.” (Syraic text of Pseudo-Ephraem)
  4. Pseudo-Ephraem concludes with the resurrection of the righteous and the wicked at the same time just like the standard doctrine of the second coming that has been taught for 2000 years. “The good will go forth into the Kingdom, And the bad will remain in Gehenna; The righteous will fly up to the height, And the sinners will burn in fire.” (Syraic text of Pseudo-Ephraem)

The Latin text of Pseudo-Ephraem does not teach Rapture theology since the saints suffer and die during the tribulation:

  1. “In those days [during the tribulation] people shall not be buried, neither Christian, nor heretic, neither Jew, nor pagan, because of fear and dread there is not one who buries them; because all people, while they are fleeing, ignore them.” (Latin text of Pseudo-Ephraem)
  2. “Then, when this inevitability has overwhelmed all people, just and unjust, the just, so that they may be found good by their Lord; and indeed the unjust, so that they may be damned forever with their author the Devil” (Latin text of Pseudo-Ephraem)
  3. The Latin Pseudo-Ephraem teaches the resurrection of Christians at the second coming when the devil will be destroyed, not the rapture: “Arise, O sleeping ones, arise, meet Christ, because his hour of judgment has come! Then Christ shall come and the enemy shall be thrown into confusion, and the Lord shall destroy him by the spirit of his mouth. And he shall be bound and shall be plunged into the abyss of everlasting fire alive with his father Satan; and all people, who do his wishes, shall perish with him forever; but the righteous ones shall inherit everlasting life with the Lord forever and ever.” (Latin text of Pseudo-Ephraem)

The Latin text of Pseudo-Ephraem does not teach Rapture theology in the “prize passage”:

  1. This is the one sentence that Rapture advocates say teaches the rapture. In fact we learn from the Syriac text that these saints escape the tribulation by death not rapture! “For all the saints and elect of God are gathered, prior to the tribulation that is to come, and are taken to the Lord lest they see the confusion that is to overwhelm the world because of our sins.” (Latin text of Pseudo-Ephraem)
  2. Pseudo-Ephraem teaches that Christians escape tribulation by death not rapture!
Saints escape tribulation by death not rapture:
Latin Pseudo-Ephraem Syraic Pseudo-Ephraem
“For all the saints and elect of God are gathered, prior to the tribulation that is to come, and are taken to the Lord lest they see the confusion that is to overwhelm the world because of our sins.” “Pronouncing the good fortune of the deceased Who had avoided the calamity: ‘Blessed are you for you were borne away (to the grave) And hence you escaped from the afflictions!




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five scrolls

The first five books of the Bible are attributed to Moses and are commonly called the Pentateuch (literally “five scrolls”). Moses lived between 1500 and 1300 BC, though he recounts events in the first eleven chapters of the Bible that occurred long before his time (such as the creation and the flood).

All this leads to the conclusion that the earliest writings in the Bible were set down around 1400 BC. The writings of the thirty or so other contributors to the Old Testament span a thousand years. They recount the times and messages from Moses’ successor, Joshua, to the last of the Old Testament prophets, Malachi, who wrote his little tract around 450 BC.

Then there is a 500-year period when no writings were contributed to the Bible. This is the period between the testaments, when Alexander the Great conquered much of the world and when the Greek language was introduced to the Hebrews. Indeed, they began to use Greek so much that the Hebrew language was replaced by Greek and by another language, Aramaic, which was spoken all over that area of the world at that time.

The New Testament was written during a much shorter period, i.e. during the last half of the first century AD.

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King James Diversion

The Church hierarchy removed as many as 72 books—more than the number they left in—from the biblical writings of the early Christians. Today’s “church,” on the other hand, would like us to believe information that isn’t in the Bible at all. The idea that Armageddon is upon us, again, was renewed in the early 19th century. Up until that time, Christians predominantly believed that all Biblical prophecy had been fulfilled. Americans are being kept in a perpetual state of fear with a never-ending war on terror, expectations of another terror attack like 9/11 and looming economic collapse. These are exactly the conditions that make end times prophecy popular among increasing numbers of “believers” whose only remaining “hope” is to be raptured off this planet and into heaven before God destroys this wicked world.

During the 20th and early 21st centuries, AD, Christians have been led to believe that the “end times” predicted in the biblical book of Revelation are happening now. They’ve been told that God’s cycle of time is 7,000 years; that 6,000 years had passed since “creation” in Genesis to the year 2000 AD; that biblical prophesy was fulfilled by the reformation of Israel in 1948; that the Antichrist will surely be revealed; that the “government” intends to put radio frequency identification (RFID) tags into items in commerce, inanimate objects and animals; that these RFID tags are “the mark of the beast” which everyone will have to accept into their own bodies or be denied the ability to function in society or buy food.

These Christians believe that end times prophesy is finally being fulfilled and true “believers” will be “raptured” any day now to spend eternity with Christ in heaven. These Christians believe that, according to Matthew 28, it is their holy duty to bring about Christ’s return more quickly by telling all the world that Jesus died on the cross for our salvation and that He will return to begin a one thousand-year reign upon a literal throne in the Middle East and save us from this evil world.

Where did these beliefs, also called “premillennialism,” come from if they are not exactly in the Bible? Is it true that the book of Revelation tells Christians that the apocalypse is inevitable and they should embrace it and help to hasten its arrival?

“The idea that we are living in the last days and that the world is going to be destroyed and Jesus Christ is going to come any minute has only been around in the United States for 200 years.” The American Free Press [8-19-02]. “The shift away from historic Christianity stemmed from a novel approach to Bible interpretation called ‘dispensationalism’ which was developed in the 1830s and popularized with the 1909 publication of the Scofield Reference Bible.

The King James Version (KJV), also known as the Authorized Version (AV) or the King James Bible (KJB), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England begun in 1604 and completed in 1611. The books of the King James Version include the 39 books of the Old Testament, an intertestamental section containing 14 books of the Apocrypha, and the 27 books of the New Testament.

It was first printed by the King’s Printer Robert Barker and was the third translation into English, approved by the English Church authorities. The first had been the Great Bible, commissioned in the reign of King Henry VIII (1535), and the second had been the Bishops’ Bible of 1568. In January 1604, James VI and I convened the Hampton Court Conference, where a new English version was conceived in response to the problems of the earlier translations perceived by the Puritans, a faction of the Church of England. The translation is widely considered to be both beautiful and scholarly and thus a towering achievement in English literature.

James gave the translators instructions intended to ensure that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology and reflect the episcopal structure of the Church of England and its belief in an ordained clergy. The translation was done by 47 scholars, all of whom were members of the Church of England. In common with most other translations of the period, the New Testament was translated from Greek, the Old Testament from Hebrew and Aramaic, and the Apocrypha from Greek and Latin. In the Book of Common Prayer (1662), the text of the Authorized Version replaced the text of the Great Bible for Epistle and Gospel readings (but not for the Psalter, which substantially retained Coverdale’s Great Bible version) and as such was authorized by Act of Parliament.

By the first half of the 18th century, the Authorized Version had become effectively unchallenged as the English translation used in Anglican and English Protestant churches, except for the Psalms and some short passages in the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England. Over the course of the 18th century, the Authorized Version supplanted the Latin Vulgate as the standard version of scripture for English-speaking scholars. With the development of stereotype printing at the beginning of the 19th century, this version of the Bible became the most widely printed book in history, almost all such printings presenting the standard text of 1769 extensively re-edited by Benjamin Blayney at Oxford, and nearly always omitting the books of the Apocrypha. Today the unqualified title “King James Version” usually indicates that this Oxford standard text is meant.

The title of the first edition of the translation was “THE HOLY BIBLE, Containing the Old Testament, AND THE NEW: Newly Translated out of the Original tongues: & with the former Translations diligently compared and revised, by his Majesties special Commandment”. The title page carries the words “Appointed to be read in Churches”, and F. F. Bruce suggests it was “probably authorized by order in council” but no record of the authorization survives “because the Privy Council registers from 1600 to 1613 were destroyed by fire in January 1618/19”.

For many years it was common not to give the translation any specific name. In his Leviathan of 1651, Thomas Hobbes referred to it as the English Translation made in the beginning of the Reign of King James. A 1761 “Brief Account of the various Translations of the Bible into English” refers to the 1611 version merely as a new, compleat, and more accurate Translation, despite referring to the Great Bible by that name, and despite using the name “Rhemish Testament” for the Douay-Rheims Bible version. Similarly, a “History of England”, whose fifth edition was published in 1775, writes merely that [a] new translation of the Bible, viz., that now in Use, was begun in 1607, and published in 1611.

King James’s Bible is used as the name for the 1611 translation (on a par with the “Genevan Bible” or the “Rhemish Testament”) in Charles Butler’s Horae Biblicae (first published 1797). Other works from the early 19th century confirm the widespread use of this name on both sides of the Atlantic: it is found both in a “Historical sketch of the English translations of the Bible” published in Massachusetts in 1815, and in an English publication from 1818, which explicitly states that the 1611 version is “generally known by the name of King James’s Bible”. This name was also found as King James’ Bible (without the final “s”): for example in a book review from 1811. The phrase “King James’s Bible” is used as far back as 1715, although in this case it is not clear whether this is a name or merely a description.

The use of Authorized Version or Authorised Version, capitalized and used as a name, is found as early as 1814. For some time before this, descriptive phrases such as “our present, and only publicly authorized version” (1783), “our Authorized version” (1792), and “the authorized version” (1801, uncapitalized) are found. The Oxford English Dictionary records a usage in 1824. In Britain, the 1611 translation is generally known as the “Authorized Version” today.

As early as 1814, we find King James’ version, evidently a descriptive phrase, being used. “The King James Version” is found, unequivocally used as a name, in a letter from 1855. The next year King James Bible, with no possessive, appears as a name in a Scottish source. In the United States, the “1611 translation” (actually editions following the standard text of 1769, see below) is generally known as the King James Version today.

Earlier English translations

The followers of John Wycliffe undertook the first complete English translations of the Christian scriptures in the 14th century. These translations were banned in 1409 due to their association with the Lollards. The Wycliffe Bible pre-dated the printing press but was circulated very widely in manuscript form, often inscribed with a date earlier than 1409 to avoid the legal ban. As the text translated in the various versions of the Wycliffe Bible was the Latin Vulgate, and as it contained no heterodox readings, there was in practice no way by which the ecclesiastical authorities could distinguish the banned version; consequently many Catholic commentators of the 15th and 16th centuries (such as Thomas More) took these manuscript English Bibles to represent an anonymous earlier orthodox translation.

In 1525, William Tyndale, an English contemporary of Martin Luther, undertook a translation of the New Testament. Tyndale’s translation was the first printed Bible in English. Over the next ten years, Tyndale revised his New Testament in the light of rapidly advancing biblical scholarship, and embarked on a translation of the Old Testament. Despite some controversial translation choices, and in spite of Tyndale’s execution on charges of heresy for having made the translated bible, the merits of Tyndale’s work and prose style made his translation the ultimate basis for all subsequent renditions into Early Modern English. With these translations lightly edited and adapted by Myles Coverdale, in 1539, Tyndale’s New Testament and his incomplete work on the Old Testament became the basis for the Great Bible. This was the first “authorized version” issued by the Church of England during the reign of King Henry VIII. When Mary I succeeded to the throne in 1553, she returned the Church of England to the communion of the Roman Catholic faith and many English religious reformers fled the country, some establishing an English-speaking colony at Geneva. Under the leadership of John Calvin, Geneva became the chief international centre of Reformed Protestantism and Latin biblical scholarship.

These English expatriates undertook a translation that became known as the Geneva Bible. This translation, dated to 1560, was a revision of Tyndale’s Bible and the Great Bible on the basis of the original languages. Soon after Elizabeth I took the throne in 1558, the flaws of both the Great Bible and the Geneva Bible (namely, that the Geneva Bible did not “conform to the ecclesiology and reflect the episcopal structure of the Church of England and its beliefs about an ordained clergy”) became painfully apparent. In 1568, the Church of England responded with the Bishops’ Bible, a revision of the Great Bible in the light of the Geneva version. While officially approved, this new version failed to displace the Geneva translation as the most popular English Bible of the age – in part because the full Bible was only printed in lectern editions of prodigious size and at a cost of several pounds. Accordingly, Elizabethan lay people overwhelmingly read the Bible in the Geneva Version – small editions were available at a relatively low cost. At the same time, there was a substantial clandestine importation of the rival Douay – Rheims New Testament of 1582, undertaken by exiled Roman Catholics. This translation, though still derived from Tyndale, claimed to represent the text of the Latin Vulgate.

In May 1601, King James VI of Scotland attended the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland at St Columba’s Church in Burntisland, Fife, at which proposals were put forward for a new translation of the Bible into English. Two years later, he ascended to the throne of England as King James I of England.

The newly crowned King James convened the Hampton Court Conference in 1604. That gathering proposed a new English version in response to the perceived problems of earlier translations as detected by the Puritan faction of the Church of England. Three examples of problems the Puritans perceived with the Bishops and Great Bibles were:

First, Galatians iv. 25 (from the Bishops’ Bible). The Greek word susoichei is not well translated as now it is, bordereth neither expressing the force of the word, nor the apostle’s sense, nor the situation of the place. Secondly, psalm cv. 28 (from the Great Bible), ‘They were not obedient;’ the original being, ‘They were not disobedient.’ Thirdly, psalm cvi. 30 (also from the Great Bible), ‘Then stood up Phinees and prayed,’ the Hebrew hath, ‘executed judgment.’

Instructions were given to the translators that were intended to limit the Puritan influence on this new translation. The Bishop of London added a qualification that the translators would add no marginal notes (which had been an issue in the Geneva Bible). King James cited two passages in the Geneva translation where he found the marginal notes offensive: Exodus 1:19, where the Geneva Bible had commended the example of civil disobedience showed by the Hebrew midwives, and also II Chronicles 15:16, where the Geneva Bible had criticized King Asa for not having executed his idolatrous grandmother, Queen Maachah. Further, the King gave the translators instructions designed to guarantee that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology of the Church of England. Certain Greek and Hebrew words were to be translated in a manner that reflected the traditional usage of the church. For example, old ecclesiastical words such as the word “church” were to be retained and not to be translated as “congregation”. The new translation would reflect the episcopal structure of the Church of England and traditional beliefs about ordained clergy.

James’ instructions included several requirements that kept the new translation familiar to its listeners and readers. The text of the Bishops’ Bible would serve as the primary guide for the translators, and the familiar proper names of the biblical characters would all be retained. If the Bishops’ Bible was deemed problematic in any situation, the translators were permitted to consult other translations from a pre-approved list: the Tyndale Bible, the Coverdale Bible, Matthew’s Bible, the Great Bible, and the Geneva Bible. In addition, later scholars have detected an influence on the Authorized Version from the translations of Taverner’s Bible and the New Testament of the Douay–Rheims Bible. It is for this reason that the flyleaf of most printings of the Authorized Version observes that the text had been “translated out of the original tongues, and with the former translations diligently compared and revised, by His Majesty’s special commandment.”

The task of translation was undertaken by 47 scholars, although 54 were originally approved. All were members of the Church of England and all except Sir Henry Savile were clergy. The scholars worked in six committees, two based in each of the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, and Westminster. The committees included scholars with Puritan sympathies, as well as High Churchmen. Forty unbound copies of the 1602 edition of the Bishops’ Bible were specially printed so that the agreed changes of each committee could be recorded in the margins. The committees worked on certain parts separately and the drafts produced by each committee were then compared and revised for harmony with each other. The scholars were not paid directly for their translation work, instead a circular letter was sent to bishops encouraging them to consider the translators for appointment to well paid livings as these fell vacant. Several were supported by the various colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, while others were promoted to bishoprics, deaneries and prebends through royal patronage.

The committees started work towards the end of 1604. King James I of England, on 22 July 1604, sent a letter to Archbishop Bancroft asking him to contact all English churchmen requesting that they make donations to his project.

Right trusty and well beloved, we greet you well. Whereas we have appointed certain learned men, to the number of 4 and 50, for the translating of the Bible, and in this number, divers of them have either no ecclesiastical preferment at all, or else so very small, as the same is far unmeet for men of their deserts and yet we in ourself in any convenient time cannot well remedy it, therefor we do hereby require you, that presently you write in our name as well to the Archbishop of York, as to the rest of the bishops of the province of Cant.[erbury] signifying unto them, that we do well and straitly charge everyone of them … that (all excuses set apart) when a prebend or parsonage … shall next upon any occasion happen to be void … we may commend for the same some such of the learned men, as we shall think fit to be preferred unto it … Given unto our signet at our palace of West.[minister] on 2 and 20 July , in the 2nd year of our reign of England, France, and of Ireland, and of Scotland xxxvii.”

They had all completed their sections by 1608, the Apocrypha committee finishing first. From January 1609, a General Committee of Review met at Stationers’ Hall, London to review the completed marked texts from each of the six committees. The General Committee included John Bois, Andrew Downes and John Harmar, and others known only by their initials, including “AL” (who may be Arthur Lake), and were paid for their attendance by the Stationers’ Company. John Bois prepared a note of their deliberations (in Latin) – which has partly survived in two later transcripts. Also surviving is a bound-together set of marked-up corrections to one of the forty Bishops’ Bibles – covering the Old Testament and Gospels, and also a manuscript translation of the text of the Epistles, excepting those verses where no change was being recommended to the readings in the Bishops’ Bible. Archbishop Bancroft insisted on having a final say, making fourteen changes, of which one was the term “bishopricke” at Acts 1:20.

  • First Westminster Company, translating from Genesis to 2 Kings:
Lancelot Andrewes, John Overall, Hadrian à Saravia, Richard Clarke, John Layfield, Robert Tighe, Francis Burleigh, Geoffrey King, Richard Thomson, William Bedwell;
  • First Cambridge Company, translated from 1 Chronicles to the Song of Solomon:
Edward Lively, John Richardson, Lawrence Chaderton, Francis Dillingham, Roger Andrewes, Thomas Harrison, Robert Spaulding, Andrew Bing;
  • First Oxford Company, translated from Isaiah to Malachi:
John Harding, John Rainolds (or Reynolds), Thomas Holland, Richard Kilby, Miles Smith, Richard Brett, Daniel Fairclough, William Thorne;
  • Second Oxford Company, translated the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and the Book of Revelation:
Thomas Ravis, George Abbot, Richard Eedes, Giles Tomson, Sir Henry Savile, John Peryn, Ralph Ravens, John Harmar, John Aglionby, Leonard Hutten;
  • Second Westminster Company, translated the Epistles:
William Barlow, John Spenser, Roger Fenton, Ralph Hutchinson, William Dakins, Michael Rabbet, Thomas Sanderson (who probably had already become Archdeacon of Rochester);
  • Second Cambridge Company, translated the Apocrypha:
John Duport, William Branthwaite, Jeremiah Radcliffe, Samuel Ward, Andrew Downes, John Bois, Robert Ward, Thomas Bilson, Richard Bancroft.

Archbishop Richard Bancroft was the “chief overseer” of the production of the Authorized Version.

The original printing of the Authorized Version was published by Robert Barker, the King’s Printer, in 1611 as a complete folio Bible. It was sold looseleaf for ten shillings, or bound for twelve. Robert Barker’s father, Christopher, had, in 1589, been granted by Elizabeth I the title of royal Printer, with the perpetual Royal Privilege to print Bibles in England. Robert Barker invested very large sums in printing the new edition, and consequently ran into serious debt, such that he was compelled to sub-lease the privilege to two rival London printers, Bonham Norton and John Bill. It appears that it was initially intended that each printer would print a portion of the text, share printed sheets with the others, and split the proceeds. Bitter financial disputes broke out, as Barker accused Norton and Bill of concealing their profits, while Norton and Bill accused Barker of selling sheets properly due to them as partial Bibles for ready money. There followed decades of continual litigation, and consequent imprisonment for debt for members of the Barker and Norton printing dynasties, while each issued rival editions of the whole Bible. In 1629 the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge successfully managed to assert separate and prior royal licences for Bible printing, for their own university presses – and Cambridge University took the opportunity to print revised editions of the Authorized Version in 1629, and 1638. The editors of these editions included John Bois and John Ward from the original translators. This did not, however, impede the commercial rivalries of the London printers, especially as the Barker family refused to allow any other printers access to the authoritative manuscript of the Authorized Version.

The opening of the Epistle to the Hebrews of the 1611 edition of the Authorized Version shows the original typeface. Marginal notes reference variant translations and cross references to other Bible passages. Each chapter is headed by a précis of contents. There are decorative initial letters for each Chapter, and a decorated headpiece to each Biblical Book, but no illustrations in the text.

Two editions of the whole Bible are recognized as having been produced in 1611, which may be distinguished by their rendering of Ruth 3:15; the first edition reading “he went into the city”, where the second reads “she went into the city.”; these are known colloquially as the “He” and “She” Bibles. However, Bibles in all the early editions were made up using sheets originating from several printers, and consequently there is very considerable variation within any one edition. It is only in 1613 that an edition is found, all of whose surviving representatives have substantially the same text.

The original printing was made before English spelling was standardized, and when printers, as a matter of course, expanded and contracted the spelling of the same words in different places, so as to achieve an even column of text. They set v for initial u and v, and u for u and v everywhere else. They used long ſ for non-final s. The glyph j occurs only after i, as in the final letter in a Roman numeral. Punctuation was relatively heavy, and differed from current practice. When space needed to be saved, the printers sometimes used ye for the, (replacing the Middle English thorn with the continental y), set ã for an or am (in the style of scribe’s shorthand), and set & for and. On the contrary, on a few occasions, they appear to have inserted these words when they thought a line needed to be padded. Later printings regularized these spellings; the punctuation has also been standardized, but still varies from current usage norms.

The first printing used a black letter typeface instead of a roman typeface, which itself made a political and a religious statement. Like the Great Bible and the Bishops’ Bible, the Authorized Version was “appointed to be read in churches”. It was a large folio volume meant for public use, not private devotion; the weight of the type mirrored the weight of establishment authority behind it. However, smaller editions and roman-type editions followed rapidly, e.g. quarto roman-type editions of the Bible in 1612. This contrasted with the Geneva Bible, which was the first English Bible printed in a roman typeface (although black-letter editions, particularly in folio format, were issued later).

In contrast to the Geneva Bible and the Bishops’ Bible, which had both been extensively illustrated, there were no illustrations at all in the 1611 edition of the Authorized Version, the main form of decoration being the historiated initial letters provided for books and chapters – together with the decorative title pages to the Bible itself, and to the New Testament.

The original printing of the Authorized Version used roman type to distinguish text supplied by translators, or thought needful for English grammar but not present in the Greek or Hebrew. In the first printing, the device of having different type faces to show supplied words was used sparsely and inconsistently. This is perhaps the most significant difference between the original text and the current text. When, from the later 17th century onwards, the Authorized Version began to be printed in roman type, the typeface for supplied words was changed to italics. This was intended to de-emphasise the words.

The original printing contained two prefatory texts; the first was a formal Epistle Dedicatory to “the most high and mighty Prince” King James. Many British printings reproduce this, while most non-British printings do not.

The second preface was called Translators to the Reader, a long and learned essay that defends the undertaking of the new version. It observes the translators’ stated goal, that they, “never thought from the beginning that [they] should need to make a new translation, nor yet to make of a bad one a good one, … but to make a good one better, or out of many good ones, one principal good one, not justly to be excepted against; that hath been our endeavour, that our mark.” They also give their opinion of previous English Bible translations, stating, “We do not deny, nay, we affirm and avow, that the very meanest translation of the Bible in English, set forth by men of our profession, (for we have seen none of theirs [Roman Catholics] of the whole Bible as yet) containeth the word of God, nay, is the word of God.” As with the first preface, some British printings reproduce this, while most non-British printings do not. Almost every printing that includes the second preface also includes the first. The first printing contained a number of other apparatus, including a table for the reading of the Psalms at matins and evensong, and a calendar, an almanac, and a table of holy days and observances. Much of this material became obsolete with the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar by Britain and its colonies in 1752, and thus modern editions invariably omit it.

So as to make it easier to locate a particular passage, each chapter was headed by a brief precis of its contents with verse numbers. Later editors freely substituted their own chapter summaries, or omitted such material entirely. Pilcrow marks are used to indicate the beginnings of paragraphs except after the book of Acts.

The Authorized Version was meant to replace the Bishops’ Bible as the official version for readings in the Church of England. No record of its authorization exists; it was probably effected by an order of the Privy Council but the records for the years 1600 to 1613 were destroyed by fire in January 1618/19 and it is commonly known as the Authorized Version in the United Kingdom. The King’s Printer issued no further editions of the Bishops’ Bible, so necessarily the Authorized Version replaced it as the standard lectern Bible in parish church use in England.

In the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, the text of the Authorized Version finally supplanted that of the Great Bible in the Epistle and Gospel readings – though the Prayer Book Psalter nevertheless continues in the Great Bible version.

The case was different in Scotland, where the Geneva Bible had long been the standard church bible. It was not until 1633 that a Scottish edition of the Authorized Version was printed – in conjunction with the Scots coronation in that year of Charles I. The inclusion of illustrations in the edition raised accusations of Popery from opponents of the religious policies of Charles and William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. However, official policy favoured the Authorized Version, and this favour returned during the Commonwealth – as London printers succeeded in re-asserting their monopoly on Bible printing with support from Oliver Cromwell – and the “New Translation” was the only edition on the market. F.F. Bruce reports that the last recorded instance of a Scots parish continuing to use the “Old Translation” (i.e. Geneva) as being in 1674.

The Authorized Versions acceptance by the general public took longer. The Geneva Bible continued to be popular, and large numbers were imported from Amsterdam, where printing continued up to 1644 in editions carrying a false London imprint. However, few if any genuine Geneva editions appear to have been printed in London after 1616, and in 1637 Archbishop Laud prohibited their printing or importation. In the period of the English Civil War, soldiers of the New Model Army were issued a book of Geneva selections called “The Soldiers’ Bible” . In the first half of the 17th century the Authorized Version is most commonly referred to as “The Bible without notes”, thereby distinguishing it from the Geneva “Bible with notes”. There were several printings of the Authorized Version in Amsterdam – one as late as 1715 which combined the Authorized Version translation text with the Geneva marginal notes; one such edition was printed in London in 1649. During the Commonwealth a commission was established by Parliament to recommend a revision of the Authorized Version with acceptably Protestant explanatory notes, but the project was abandoned when it became clear that these would be nearly double the bulk of the Bible text. After the English Restoration, the Geneva Bible was held to be politically suspect and a reminder of the repudiated Puritan era. Furthermore, disputes over the lucrative rights to print the Authorized Version dragged on through the 17th century, so none of the printers involved saw any commercial advantage in marketing a rival translation. The Authorized Version became the only current version circulating among English-speaking people.

A small minority of critical scholars were slow to accept the latest translation. Hugh Broughton, the most highly regarded English Hebraist of his time (but who had been excluded from the panel of translators because of his utterly uncongenial temperament), issued in 1611 a total condemnation of the new version, criticizing especially the translators’ rejection of word-for-word equivalence and stated that “he would rather be torn in pieces by wild horses than that this abominable translation (KJV) should ever be foisted upon the English people”. Walton’s London Polyglot of 1657 disregards the Authorized Version (and indeed the English language) entirely. Walton’s reference text throughout is the Vulgate. The Vulgate Latin is also found as the standard text of scripture in Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan of 1651, indeed Hobbes gives Vulgate chapter and verse numbers (e.g., Job 41:24, not Job 41:33) for his head text. In Chapter 35: ‘The Signification in Scripture of Kingdom of God’ , Hobbes discusses Exodus 19:5, first in his own translation of the ‘Vulgar Latin’ , and then subsequently as found in the versions he terms “…the English translation made in the beginning of the reign of King James”, and “The Geneva French” (i.e. Olivétan). Hobbes advances detailed critical arguments why the Vulgate rendering is to be preferred. For most of the 17th century the assumption remained that, while it had been of vital importance to provide the scriptures in the vernacular for ordinary people, nevertheless for those with sufficient education to do so, Biblical study was best undertaken within the international common medium of Latin. It was only in 1700 that modern bilingual Bibles appeared in which the Authorized Version was compared with counterpart Dutch and French Protestant vernacular Bibles.

In consequence of the continual disputes over printing privileges, successive printings of the Authorized Version were notably less careful than the 1611 edition had been – compositors freely varying spelling, capitalization and punctuation – and also, over the years, introducing about 1,500 misprints (some of which, like the omission of “not” from the commandment “Thou shalt not commit adultery” in the “Wicked Bible”, became notorious). The two Cambridge editions of 1629 and 1638 attempted to restore the proper text – while introducing over 200 revisions of the original translators’ work, chiefly by incorporating into the main text a more literal reading originally presented as a marginal note. A more thoroughly corrected edition was proposed following the Restoration, in conjunction with the revised 1662 Book of Common Prayer, but Parliament then decided against it.

By the first half of the 18th century, the Authorized Version was effectively unchallenged as the sole English translation in current use in Protestant churches, and was so dominant that the Roman Catholic Church in England issued in 1750 a revision of the 1610 Douay-Rheims Bible by Richard Challoner that was very much closer to the Authorized Version than to the original. However, general standards of spelling, punctuation, typesetting, capitalization and grammar had changed radically in the 100 years since the first edition of the Authorized Version, and all printers in the market were introducing continual piecemeal changes to their Bible texts to bring them into line with current practice – and with public expectations of standardized spelling and grammatical construction.

Over the course of the 18th century, the Authorized Version supplanted the Hebrew, Greek and the Latin Vulgate as the standard version of scripture for English speaking scholars and divines, and indeed came to be regarded by some as an inspired text in itself – so much so that any challenge to its readings or textual base came to be regarded by many as an assault on Holy Scripture. This has been contemptuously labelled “AVolatry”, a play on the name “Authorized Version” (AV) and idolatry.

Standard text of 1769

By the mid-18th century the wide variation in the various modernized printed texts of the Authorized Version, combined with the notorious accumulation of misprints, had reached the proportion of a scandal, and the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge both sought to produce an updated standard text. First of the two was the Cambridge edition of 1760, the culmination of twenty-years work by Francis Sawyer Parris, who died in May of that year. This 1760 edition was reprinted without change in 1762 and in John Baskerville’s fine folio edition of 1763. This was effectively superseded by the 1769 Oxford edition, edited by Benjamin Blayney, though with comparatively few changes from Parris’s edition; but which became the Oxford standard text, and is reproduced almost unchanged in most current printings. Parris and Blayney sought consistently to remove those elements of the 1611 and subsequent editions that they believed were due to the vagaries of printers, while incorporating most of the revised readings of the Cambridge editions of 1629 and 1638, and each also introducing a few improved readings of their own. They undertook the mammoth task of standardizing the wide variation in punctuation and spelling of the original, making many thousands of minor changes to the text; although some of these updates appear to alter the ostensible sense – as when the original text of Genesis 2:21 “in stead” (“in that place”) was standardized to read “instead” (“as an alternative”). In addition, Blayney and Parris thoroughly revised and greatly extended the italicization of “supplied” words not found in the original languages by cross-checking against the presumed source texts. Blayney seems to have worked from the 1550 Stephanus edition of the Textus Receptus, rather than the later editions of Beza that the translators of the 1611 New Testament had favoured; accordingly the current Oxford standard text alters around a dozen italicizations where Beza and Stephanus differ. Like the 1611 edition, the 1769 Oxford edition included the Apocrypha, although Blayney tended to remove cross-references to the Books of the Apocrypha from the margins of their Old and New Testaments wherever these had been provided by the original translators. Altogether, Blayney’s 1769 text differed from the 1611 text in around 24,000 places. Since that date, a few further changes have been introduced to the Oxford standard text. The Oxford University Press paperback edition of the “Authorized King James Version” provides Oxford’s standard text, and also includes the prefatory section “The Translators to the Reader”.

The 1611 and 1769 texts of the first three verses from I Corinthians 13 are given below.

[1611] 1. Though I speake with the tongues of men & of Angels, and haue not charity, I am become as sounding brasse or a tinkling cymbal. 2 And though I haue the gift of prophesie, and vnderstand all mysteries and all knowledge: and though I haue all faith, so that I could remooue mountaines, and haue no charitie, I am nothing. 3 And though I bestowe all my goods to feede the poore, and though I giue my body to bee burned, and haue not charitie, it profiteth me nothing.

[1769] 1. Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. 2 And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing. 3 And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing.

There are a number of superficial edits in these three verses: eleven changes of spelling, sixteen changes of typesetting (including the changed conventions for the use of u and v), three changes of punctuation, and one variant text – where “not charity” is substituted for “no charity” in verse two, in the erroneous belief that the original reading was a misprint.

A particular verse for which Blayney’s 1769 text differs from Parris’s 1760 version is Matthew 5:13, where Parris (1760) has

Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing but to be cast out, and to be troden under foot of men.

Blayney (1769) changes ‘lost his savour’ to ‘lost its savour’, and troden to trodden.

For a period, Cambridge continued to issue Bibles using the Parris text, but the market demand for absolute standardization was now such that they eventually adapted Blayney’s work, but omitted some of the idiosyncratic Oxford spellings. By the mid-19th century, almost all printings of the Authorized Version were derived from the 1769 Oxford text – increasingly without Blayney’s variant notes and cross references, and commonly excluding the Apocrypha. One exception to this was a scrupulous original-spelling, page-for-page, and line-for-line reprint of the 1611 edition (including all chapter headings, marginalia, and original italicization, but with Roman type substituted for the black letter of the original), published by Oxford in 1833. Another important exception was the 1873 Cambridge Paragraph Bible, thoroughly revised, modernized and re-edited by F. H. A. Scrivener, who for the first time consistently identified the source texts underlying the 1611 translation and its marginal notes. Scrivener, like Blayney, opted to revise the translation where he considered the judgement of the 1611 translators had been faulty. In 2005, Cambridge University Press released its New Cambridge Paragraph Bible with Apocrypha, edited by David Norton, which followed in the spirit of Scrivener’s work, attempting to bring spelling to present-day standards. Norton also innovated with the introduction of quotation marks, while returning to a hypothetical 1611 text, so far as possible, to the wording used by its translators, especially in the light of the re-emphasis on some of their draft documents. This text has been issued in paperback by Penguin books.

From the early nineteenth century the Authorized Version has remained almost completely unchanged – and since, due to advances in printing technology, it could now be produced in very large editions for mass sale, it established complete dominance in public and ecclesiastical use in the English-speaking Protestant world. Academic debate through that century, however, increasingly reflected concerns about the Authorized Version shared by some scholars: (a) that subsequent study in oriental languages suggested a need to revise the translation of the Hebrew Bible – both in terms of specific vocabulary, and also in distinguishing descriptive terms from proper names; (b) that the Authorized Version was unsatisfactory in translating the same Greek words and phrases into different English, especially where parallel passages are found in the synoptic gospels; and (c) in the light of subsequent ancient manuscript discoveries, the New Testament translation base of the Greek Textus Receptus could no longer be considered to be the best representation of the original text.

Responding to these concerns, the Convocation of Canterbury resolved in 1870 to undertake a revision of the text of the Authorized Version, intending to retain the original text “except where in the judgement of competent scholars such a change is necessary”. The resulting revision was issued as the Revised Version in 1881 (New Testament), 1885 (Old Testament) and 1894 (Apocrypha); but, although it sold widely, the revision did not find popular favour, and it was only reluctantly in 1899 that Convocation approved it for reading in churches.

By the early twentieth century, editing had been completed in Cambridge’s text, with at least 6 new changes since 1769, and the reversing of at least 30 of the standard Oxford readings. The distinct Cambridge text was printed in the millions, and after the Second World War “the unchanging steadiness of the KJB was a huge asset.” The Cambridge edition is preferred by scholars.

The Authorized Version maintained its effective dominance throughout the first half of the 20th century. New translations in the second half of the 20th century displaced its 250 years of dominance (roughly 1700 to 1950), but groups do exist – sometimes termed the King James Only movement – that distrust anything not in agreement with the Authorized Version.

Editorial criticism

F. H. A. Scrivener and D. Norton have both written in detail on editorial variations which have occurred through the history of the publishing of the Authorized Version from 1611 to 1769. In the 19th century, there were effectively three main guardians of the text. Norton identified five variations among the Oxford, Cambridge and London (Eyre and Spottiswoode) texts of 1857, such as the spelling of “farther” or “further” at Matthew 26:39.

In the 20th century, variation between the editions was reduced to comparing the Cambridge to the Oxford. Distinctly identified Cambridge readings included “or Sheba” (Joshua 19:2), “sin” (2 Chronicles 33:19), “clifts” (Job 30:6), “vapour” (Psalm 148:8), “flieth” (Nahum 3:16), “further” (Matthew 26:39) and a number of other references. In effect the Cambridge was considered the current text in comparison to the Oxford. These are instances where both Oxford and Cambridge have now diverged from Blayney’s 1769 Edition. The distinctions between the Oxford and Cambridge editions have been a major point in the Bible version debate, and a potential theological issue, particularly in regard to the identification of the Pure Cambridge Edition.

Cambridge University Press introduced a change at 1 John 5:8 in 1985, reversing its longstanding tradition of printing the word “spirit” in lower case by using a capital letter “S”. A Rev. Hardin of Bedford, Pennsylvania, wrote a letter to Cambridge inquiring about this verse, and subsequently received a reply from Dr. Cooper on June 3, 1985, admitting that it was a “matter of some embarrassment regarding the lower case ‘s’ in Spirit”.

Literary attributes


Like Tyndale’s translation and the Geneva Bible, the Authorized Version was translated primarily from Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic texts, although with secondary reference both to the Latin Vulgate, and to more recent scholarly Latin versions; two books of the Apocrypha were translated from a Latin source. Following the example of the Geneva Bible, words implied but not actually in the original source were distinguished by being printed in distinct type (albeit inconsistently), but otherwise the translators explicitly rejected word-for-word equivalence. F.F Bruce gives an example from Romans Chapter 5:

2 By whom also wee have accesse by faith, into this grace wherein wee stand, and rejoyce in hope of the glory of God. 3 And not onely so, but we glory in tribulations also, knowing that tribulation worketh patience:

The English terms “rejoice” and “glory” stand for the same word in the Greek original. In Tyndale, Geneva and the Bishops’ Bibles, both instances are translated “rejoice”. In the Douay – Rheims New Testament, both are translated “glory”. Only in the Authorized Version does the translation vary between the two verses.

In obedience to their instructions, the translators provided no marginal interpretation of the text, but in some 8,500 places a marginal note offers an alternative English wording. The majority of these notes offer a more literal rendering of the original (introduced as “Heb”, “Chal”, “Gr” or “Lat”), but others indicate a variant reading of the source text (introduced by “or”). Some of the annotated variants derive from alternative editions in the original languages, or from variant forms quoted in the fathers. More commonly, though, they indicate a difference between the original language reading and that in the translators’ preferred recent Latin versions: Tremellius for the Old Testament, Junius for the Apocrypha, and Beza for the New Testament. A few more extensive notes clarify Biblical names, units of measurement or currency, and in a very few places (e.g. Luke 17:36) record that a verse is absent from most Greek manuscripts. Modern reprintings rarely reproduce these annotated variants – although they are to be found in the New Cambridge Paragraph Bible. In addition, there were originally some 9,000 scriptural cross-references, in which one text was related to another. Such cross-references had long been common in Latin Bibles, and most of those in the Authorized Version were copied unaltered from this Latin tradition. Consequently the early editions of the KJV retain many Vulgate verse references – e.g. in the numbering of the Psalms. At the head of each chapter, the translators provided a short précis of its contents, with verse numbers; these are rarely included in complete form in modern editions.

In the Old Testament the translators render the Tetragrammaton YHWH by “the LORD” (in later editions in small capitals as LORD), or “the LORD God” (for YHWH Elohim, יהוה אלהים), except in four places by “IEHOVAH” (Exodus 6:3, Psalm 83:18, Isaiah 12:2 and Isaiah 26:4) and three times in a combination form. (Genesis 22:14, Exodus 17:15, Judges 6:24) However, if the Tetragrammaton occurs with the Hebrew word adonai (Lord) then it is rendered not as the “Lord LORD” but as the “Lord God”. (Psalm 73:28,etc.) In later editions as “Lord GOD” with “GOD” in small capitals indicating to the reader that God’s name appears in the original Hebrew.

Old Testament

For their Old Testament, the translators used a text originating in the editions of the Hebrew Rabbinic Bible by Daniel Bomberg (1524/5), but adjusted this to conform to the Greek LXX or Latin Vulgate in passages to which Christian tradition had attached a Christological interpretation. For example, the Septuagint reading “They pierced my hands and my feet” was used in Psalm 22:16 (vs. the Masoretes’ reading of the Hebrew “like lions my hands and feet”). Otherwise, however, the Authorized Version is closer to the Hebrew tradition than any previous English translation – especially in making use of the rabbinic commentaries, such as Kimhi, in elucidating obscure passages in the Masoretic Text; earlier versions had been more likely to adopt LXX or Vulgate readings in such places.

New Testament

For their New Testament, the translators chiefly used the 1598 and 1588/89 Greek editions of Theodore Beza, which also present Beza’s Latin version of the Greek and Stephanus’s edition of the Latin Vulgate. Both of these versions were extensively referred to, as the translators conducted all discussions amongst themselves in Latin. F.H.A. Scrivener identifies 190 readings where the Authorized Version translators depart from Beza’s Greek text, generally in maintaining the wording of the Bishop’s Bible and other earlier English translations. In about half of these instances, the Authorized Version translators appear to follow the earlier 1550 Greek Textus Receptus of Stephanus. For the other half, Scrivener was usually able to find corresponding Greek readings in the editions of Erasmus, or in the Complutensian Polyglot. However, in several dozen readings he notes that no printed Greek text corresponds to the English of the Authorized Version, which in these places derives directly from the Vulgate. For example, at John 10:16, the Authorized Version reads “one fold” (as did the Bishops’ Bible, and the 16th century vernacular versions produced in Geneva), following the Latin Vulgate “unum ovile”, whereas Tyndale had agreed more closely with the Greek, “one flocke” (μία ποίμνη). The Authorized Version New Testament owes much more to the Vulgate than does the Old Testament; still, at least 80% of the text is unaltered from Tyndale’s translation.


Unlike the rest of the Bible, the translators of the Apocrypha identified their source texts in their marginal notes. From these it can be determined that the books of the Apocrypha were translated from the Septuagint – primarily, from the Greek Old Testament column in the Antwerp Polyglot – but with extensive reference to the counterpart Latin Vulgate text, and to Junius’s Latin translation. The translators record references to the Sixtine Septuagint of 1587, which is substantially a printing of the Old Testament text from the Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209, and also to the 1518 Greek Septuagint edition of Aldus Manutius. They had, however, no Greek texts for 2 Esdras, or for the Prayer of Manasses, and Scrivener found that they here used an unidentified Latin manuscript.


The translators appear to have otherwise made no first-hand study of ancient manuscript sources, even those that – like the Codex Bezae – would have been readily available to them. In addition to all previous English versions (including, and contrary to their instructions, the Rheimish New Testament which in their preface they criticized); they made wide and eclectic use of all printed editions in the original languages then available, including the ancient Syriac New Testament printed with an interlinear Latin gloss in the Antwerp Polyglot of 1573. In the preface the translators acknowledge consulting translations and commentaries in Chaldee, Hebrew, Syrian, Greek, Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German.

The translators took the Bishop’s Bible as their source text, and where they departed from that in favour of another translation, this was most commonly the Geneva Bible. However, the degree to which readings from the Bishop’s Bible survived into final text of the King James Bible varies greatly from company to company, as did the propensity of the King James translators to coin phrases of their own. John Bois’s notes of the General Committee of Review show that they discussed readings derived from a wide variety of sources and versions, including explicitly both Henry Savile’s 1610 edition of the works of John Chrysostom, and also the Rheims New Testament, which was the primary source for many of the literal alternative readings provided for the marginal notes.

Variations from recent translations

A number of Bible verses in the King James Version of the New Testament are not found in more recent Bible translations; where these are based on modern critical texts. In the early seventeenth century, the source Greek texts of the New Testament used for the production of Protestant bible versions depended mainly on manuscripts of the late Byzantine text-type, and with minor variations contained what became known as the Textus Receptus. With the subsequent identification of much earlier manuscripts, most modern textual scholars value the evidence of manuscripts belonging to the Alexandrian family as better witnesses to the original text of the biblical authors, without giving it, or any family, automatic preference.

Style and criticism

A primary concern of the translators was to produce an appropriate Bible, dignified and resonant in public reading. Although the Authorized Version’s written style is an important part of its influence on English, research has found only one verse – Hebrews 13:8 – for which translators debated the wording’s literary merits. While they stated in the preface that they used stylistic variation, finding multiple English words or verbal forms in places where the original language employed repetition, in practice they also did the opposite; for example, 14 different Hebrew words were translated into the single English word “prince”.

In a period of rapid linguistic change the translators avoided contemporary idioms, tending instead towards forms that were already slightly archaic, like verily and it came to pass. The pronouns thou/thee and ye/you are consistently used as singular and plural respectively, even though by this time you was often found as the singular in general English usage, especially when addressing a social superior (as is evidenced, for example, in Shakespeare). For the possessive of the third person pronoun, the word its, first recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary in 1598, is avoided. The older his is usually employed, as for example at Matthew 5:13: “if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted?”; in other places of it, thereof or bare it are found. Another sign of linguistic conservativism is the invariable use of -eth for the third person singular present form of the verb, as at Matthew 2:13: “the Angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dreame”. The rival ending -(e)s, as found in present-day English, was already widely used by this time (for example, it predominates over -eth in the plays of Shakespeare and Marlowe). Furthermore, the translators preferred which to who or whom as the relative pronoun for persons, as in Genesis 13:5: “And Lot also which went with Abram, had flocks and heards, & tents” although who(m) is also found.

The Authorized Version is notably more Latinate than previous English versions, especially the Geneva Bible. This results in part from the academic stylistic preferences of a number of the translators – several of whom admitted to being more comfortable writing in Latin than in English – but was also, in part, a consequence of the royal proscription against explanatory notes. Hence, where the Geneva Bible might use a common English word – and gloss its particular application in a marginal note – the Authorized Version tends rather to prefer a technical term, frequently in Anglicized Latin. Consequently, although the King had instructed the translators to use the Bishops’ Bible as a base text, the New Testament in particular owes much stylistically to the Catholic Rheims New Testament, whose translators had also been concerned to find English equivalents for Latin terminology. In addition, the translators of the New Testament books habitually quote Old Testament names in the renderings familiar from the Vulgate Latin, rather than in their Hebrew forms (e.g. “Elias”, “Jeremias” for “Elijah”, “Jeremiah”).

While the Authorized Version remains among the most widely sold, modern critical New Testament translations differ substantially from it in a number of passages, primarily because they rely on source manuscripts not then accessible to (or not then highly regarded by) early 17th-century Biblical scholarship. In the Old Testament, there are also many differences from modern translations that are based not on manuscript differences, but on a different understanding of Ancient Hebrew vocabulary or grammar by the translators. For example, in modern translations it is clear that Job 28:1–11 is referring throughout to mining operations, which is not at all apparent from the text of the Authorized Version.


The King James version contains several mistranslations; especially in the Old Testament where the knowledge of Hebrew and cognate languages was uncertain at the time. Most of these are minor and do not significantly change the meaning compared to the source material. Among the most commonly cited errors is in the Hebrew of Job and Deuteronomy, where רֶאֵם “Re’em” with the probable meaning of “wild-ox, aurochs”, is translated in the KJV as “unicorn”; following in this the Vulgate unicornis and several medieval rabbinic commentators. The translators of the KJV note the alternative rendering, “rhinocerots” [sic] in the margin at Isaiah 34:7. On a similar note Martin Luther’s German translation had also relied on the Vulgate Latin on this point, consistently translating רֶאֵם using the German word for unicorn, “Einhorn.” Otherwise, the translators on several occasions mistakenly interpreted a Hebrew descriptive phrase as a proper name (or vice versa); as at 2 Samuel 1:18 where ‘the Book of Jasher’ סֵפֶר הַיׇּשׇׁר properly refers not to a work by an author of that name, but should rather be rendered as “the Book of the Upright.”


Despite royal patronage and encouragement, there was never any overt mandate to use the new translation. It was not until 1661 that the Authorized Version replaced the Bishops Bible in the Epistle and Gospel lessons of the Book of Common Prayer, and it never did replace the older translation in the Psalter. In 1763 The Critical Review complained that “many false interpretations, ambiguous phrases, obsolete words and indelicate expressions…excite the derision of the scorner”. Blayney’s 1769 version, with its revised spelling and punctuation, helped change the public perception of the Authorized Version to a masterpiece of the English language. By the 19th century, F. W. Faber could say of the translation, “It lives on the ear, like music that can never be forgotten, like the sound of church bells, which the convert hardly knows how he can forego.”

The Authorized Version has been called “the most influential version of the most influential book in the world, in what is now its most influential language”, “the most important book in English religion and culture”, and “the most celebrated book in the English-speaking world”. It has contributed 257 idioms to English, more than any other single source, including Shakespeare; examples include feet of clay and reap the whirlwind. Although the Authorized Version’s former monopoly in the English-speaking world has diminished – for example, the Church of England recommends six other versions in addition to it – it is still the most popular translation in the United States, especially among Evangelicals. In addition, in the Orthodox Church in America, the King James Version is used liturgically, and was made “the ‘official’ translation for a whole generation of American Orthodox”. The later Service Book of the Antiochian Archdiocese, in vogue today, also uses the King James Version. The King James Version is also one of the versions authorized to be used in the services of the Episcopal Church and the Anglican Communion, as it is the historical Bible of this Church.

Copyright status

The Authorized Version is in the public domain in most of the world. However, in the United Kingdom, the right to print, publish and distribute it is a Royal prerogative and the Crown licenses publishers to reproduce it under letters patent. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland the letters patent are held by the Queen’s Printer, and in Scotland by the Scottish Bible Board. The office of Queen’s Printer has been associated with the right to reproduce the Bible for centuries, the earliest known reference coming in 1577. In the 18th century all surviving interests in the monopoly were bought out by John Baskett. The Baskett rights descended through a number of printers and, in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the Queen’s Printer is now Cambridge University Press, who inherited the right when they took over the firm of Eyre & Spottiswoode in 1990.

Other royal charters of similar antiquity grant Cambridge University Press and Oxford University Press the right to produce the Authorized Version independently of the Queen’s Printer. In Scotland the Authorized Version is published by Collins under licence from the Scottish Bible Board. The terms of the letters patent prohibit any other than the holders, or those authorized by the holders, from printing, publishing or importing the Authorized Version into the United Kingdom. The protection that the Authorized Version, and also the Book of Common Prayer, enjoy is the last remnant of the time when the Crown held a monopoly over all printing and publishing in the United Kingdom. All provisions granting copyright in perpetuity were abolished by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, but because the Authorized Version is protected by royal prerogative rather than copyright, it will remain protected, as specified in CDPA s171(1)(b) .


Cambridge University Press permits the reproduction of at most 500 verses for “liturgical and non-commercial educational use” if their prescribed acknowledgement is included, the quoted verses do not exceed 25% of the publication quoting them and do not include a complete Bible book. For use beyond this, the Press is willing to consider permission requested on a case-by-case basis and in 2011 a spokesman said the Press generally does not charge a fee but tries to ensure that a reputable source text is used.


English-language Protestant Bibles in the 16th century included the books of the Apocrypha – generally in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments to indicate they were not part of the Old Testament text – and there is evidence that these were widely read as popular literature, especially in Puritan circles. However, starting in 1630, volumes of the Geneva Bible were occasionally bound with the pages of the Apocrypha section excluded. In 1644 the Long Parliament forbade the reading of the Apocrypha in Church and in 1666 the first editions of the King James Bible without the Apocrypha were bound.

The standardization of the text of the Authorized Version after 1769 together with the technological development of stereotype printing made it possible to produce Bibles in large-print runs at very low unit prices. For commercial and charitable publishers, editions of the Authorized Version without the Apocrypha reduced the cost, while having increased market appeal to non-Anglican Protestant readers.

With the rise of the Bible societies, most editions have omitted the whole section of Apocryphal books. The British and Foreign Bible Society withdrew subsidies for bible printing and dissemination in 1826, under the following resolution:

That the funds of the Society be applied to the printing and circulation of the Canonical Books of Scripture, to the exclusion of those Books and parts of Books usually termed Apocryphal;

The American Bible Society adopted a similar policy. Both societies eventually reversed these policies in light of 20th century ecumenical efforts on translations, the ABS doing so in 1964 and the BFBS in 1966.

King James Only movement

The King James Only movement advocates the superiority of the King James Version over all other English translations. Most adherents of the movement believe that the Textus Receptus is very close, if not identical, to the original autographs thereby making it the ideal Greek source for the translation. They argue that most modern English translations are based on a corrupted New Testament text that relies primarily on the Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus manuscripts.

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Revolution from Revelation

From the April 2009 Idaho Observer:

Last month we demonstrated how Hitler mistranslated words of the Apostle Paul to coerce German Christian churches to support his genocidal agenda and that the Church hierarchy removed as many as 72 books—more than the number they left in—from the biblical writings of the early Christians. Today’s “church,” on the other hand, would like us to believe information that isn’t in the Bible at all. The idea that Armageddon is upon us, again, was renewed in the early 19th century. Up until that time, Christians predominantly believed that all Biblical prophecy had been fulfilled. Americans are being kept in a perpetual state of fear with a never-ending war on terror, expectations of another terror attack like 9/11 and looming economic collapse. These are exactly the conditions that make end times prophecy popular among increasing numbers of “believers” whose only remaining “hope” is to be raptured off this planet and into heaven before God destroys this wicked world.

By Anne Wilder Chamberlain

During the 20th and early 21st centuries, AD, Christians have been led to believe that the “end times” predicted in the biblical book of Revelation are happening now. They’ve been told that God’s cycle of time is 7,000 years; that 6,000 years had passed since “creation” in Genesis to the year 2000 AD; that biblical prophesy was fulfilled by the reformation of Israel in 1948; that the Antichrist will surely be revealed as the president of the United States, the pope, Osama Bin Laden, or President Ahmedinejad of Iran; that the “government” intends to put radio frequency identification (RFID) tags into items in commerce, inanimate objects and animals; that these RFID tags are “the mark of the beast” which everyone will have to accept into their own bodies or be denied the ability to function in society or buy food.

We can all see that our world is going downhill faster than at any time since the Dark Ages. This is good news to Christians who believe that end times prophesy is finally being fulfilled and true “believers” will be “raptured” any day now to spend eternity with Christ in heaven. These Christians believe that, according to Matthew 28, it is their holy duty to bring about Christ’s return more quickly by telling all the world that Jesus died on the cross for our salvation and that He will return to begin a one thousand-year reign upon a literal throne in the Middle East and save us from this evil world.

Where did these beliefs, also called “premillennialism,” come from if they are not exactly in the Bible? Is it true that the book of Revelation tells Christians that the apocalypse is inevitable and they should embrace it and help to hasten its arrival?

Are we sure the apocalypse of Revelation hasn’t already happened?

Bible researcher Don K. Preston, in his book, Who is This Babylon? (1999), takes a look at Revelation that is completely different than the premillennialist point of view. He points out that, while today’s religious world takes for granted that Revelation was written about 95 or 96 AD, the dominant view of 19th century Bible scholars was that it was written prior to the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD. Using detailed scriptural references, Preston compares the prophesies of Isaiah, Joel and Daniel in the Old Testament and of Jesus in Luke 21 and Matthew 24. He then compares those Scriptures to the Apostle John’s book of Revelation. According to Preston and Dr. F. LaGard Smith, compiler and commentator for Guideposts’ The Daily Bible, most biblical theorists believe that the prophesies of Daniel refer to the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD. Historically, most biblical scholars also concur that Matthew 24 refers to the same event.

Daniel was written 500 years before Christ and speaks of an event in the “distant future” while Matthew, Luke and Revelation speak of an event that is “imminent” (going to happen “before the end of this [Jesus’] generation”). But Christians today are taught that the events of Revelation have not yet happened.

In 1813, David Bogue, father of the London Missionary Society, described premillennialism as an oddity of church history. At that time and until at least 1859, “postmillennialism,” the belief that Armageddon already happened and Christ would come after the millennium, was the dominant end-times theory since the Reformation, claimed Jack Van Deventer, in his article, “The Dispensational Origins of Modern Premillennialism and John Nelson Darby” (2007).

“The idea that we are living in the last days and that the world is going to be destroyed and Jesus Christ is going to come any minute has only been around in the United States for 200 years.” (The American Free Press [8-19-02], “Arms profiteers, Warmongers, Media, Exploiting ‘Last Days’ Christians all the way to the Bank“).

From whence did “the Rapture” come?

“The shift away from historic Christianity stemmed from a novel approach to Bible interpretation called ‘dispensationalism’ which was developed in the 1830s and popularized with the 1909 publication of the Scofield Reference Bible,” wrote Van Deventer.

Time magazine’s senior religion writer David van Biema in “The End: How it Got That Way” (7-01-02), tells of the “rapture” scheme of John Nelson Darby (1800-1882), who is considered the father of dispensationalism. Darby claimed that biblical history is best understood in light of seven distinct dispensations or “eras” of God’s dealings with man as discerned from the Bible, beginning with creation and ending with the millennium. According to wikipedia, dispensationalist beliefs about the re-establishment of the Kingdom of Israel put dispensationalists at the forefront of Christian Zionism because “God is able to graft [the Jews] in again.” They believe that, in His grace, He will do so according to their understanding of Old Testament prophecy to bless a remnant of Israel and to fulfill all the promises made to the genetic seed of Abraham.

According to Van Deventer, Darby was a British lawyer-turned-disillusioned minister whose doubts concerning the scriptural authority for the institutional church led him to leave it and find fellowship with a small group of brethren in Plymouth, England.

But, by 1836, Darby had invented a doctrine claiming there were not one, but two “second comings” of Christ, an idea that was immediately challenged as unbiblical by other members of the Plymouth Brethren. Also challenged were his assertions concerning the premillennial return of Christ and the rapture of the church. Darby based his theory on a loose translation of 1 Thess. 4:17, which doesn’t exactly say Christians will be raptured. It reads, “The Lord himself will descend with a shout….and we which are alive shall be caught up with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord”

Preston, in his “Special Study: Paul and the Apocalypse,” wrote that in Luke 21:22, Jesus said, “These be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled.”

I Thess. 4:15 shows that Paul was speaking to the Thessalonians, as he wrote, “For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, we which are alive and remain….shall be caught up.”

Jesus’ prophesies and those of the Old Testament referred exclusively to the Jews of that day, for whom the resurrection was extremely important, not to the Gentiles at some indistinct future time.

Darby attempted a resolution to his dilemma with the brethren by distinguishing between Scripture intended for the church and Scripture intended for Israel. “Darby’s difficulty was solved by assuming that the Gospels were addressed partly to Jews and partly to Christians,” wrote Van Deventer.

“Thus,” Van Deventer observed, “the foundation of dispensationalism was born out of Darby’s attempt to justify his newly fabricated rapture theory with the Bible.”

Darby visited the U.S. several times after the civil war and, according to van Biema, was pastored here by Cyrus I. Scofield (1843-1921), a Congregationalist minister with a checkered reputation. Even though Darby’s rapture theory was so tenuous that he had lingering doubts about it as late as 1845, in 1865 he introduced American Christians to this radical new concept, positioning it at the very beginning of the “tribulation,” sparing “true believers” the end-times horror left to nonbelievers and the doctrinally misled.

What is the Tribulation?

In the same July, 2002 edition of Time, in an expose by Kelly Sellers promoting the latest installment in Tim La Haye’s Left Behind series, “The Remnant,” the “tribulation” in Matthew 24:29, is referred to with a capital “T.” Rather than recognizing typical metaphorical biblical prophesy of “the sun being darkened and the moon not giving light,” Sellers calls it, “A period of seven years of disaster that will end with Christ’s defeat of evil at Armageddon.”

According to Bible commentator Steve Walburg, in his book “End Time Delusions,” this “Tribulation” timeline is an absurd interpretation of Daniel’s reference to 70 weeks (Daniel 9:24-27) which is finalized in verse 27 with the prophecy, “And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease.”

In the Old Testament “70 weeks” actually means 70 times seven because the Hebrew word for “week” is “shabua” (which literally means a time period of “seven”), or 490 years, as that is how time was kept from the days of Moses (Jubilees ca.1445 BC, Lev. 25:8-10).

“He” who caused “…the sacrifice….to cease” could only be in reference to Jesus when, after 3 1/2 years of ministry (midweek) he died on the cross, the ultimate sacrifice.

“The seventy weeks of Daniel certainly ended many centuries ago. We are not to look to the future for the fulfillment of these predictions,” wrote Presbyterian writer Samuel Cassels in his 1846 book, Christ and Antichrist.

“One would think the people [the Jews] among whom [these events] occurred, could not possibly have misapplied the prophecy,” Cassels continued.

Daniel 9:24-27 referred to the destruction of Jerusalem at the hands of Prince Titus in 70 AD. His “desolations” and the “tribulation” in Matthew 24:29 refer to the judgment of Judah (part of Israel) for persecuting the saints. It has nothing to do with the “Tribulation” described in La Haye’s books.

(Israel split into two countries after King Solomon died in 931 BC: Ten tribes became “Israel” and the two tribes of Benjamin and Judah became “Judah.” Jerusalem was in Judah. King David and, therefore, Jesus, were both descendants of Judah).

What is the Antichrist?

The term “antichrist” is only listed in the Bible three times, in the first two letters of the Apostle John—also the presumed author of Revelation—where he tells his followers that, “…even now there are many antichrists; whereby we know it is the last time (I John 2:18),” and I John 4:3, similar to II John:7, which states “…many deceivers are entered into the world, who confess not that Jesus is come…this is a deceiver and an antichrist.”

Yet, secular writers avidly portray the Antichrist as a specific person, an evil figure who will plague the world and eventually be defeated by Christ in the Battle of Armageddon. This theory was also put forth by Sellers in her Time article on La Haye, that before the Antichrist comes to rule the earth, believing Christians will be raptured into heaven to watch the destruction of the planet by evil from the side of Jesus in heaven.

As Robert Dreyfuss from Rolling Stone magazine told the story in his article “Reverend Doomsday” (01-28-04) about La Haye, a follower of Jerry Falwell as well as Scofield, and a political activist who promoted George W. Bush, the “bad guys” in the books are the same ones politically active members of the Christian right and their allies publicly denounce and demonize—The United Nations, Europeans, Russia, Iraq, Muslims, the media, liberals, freethinkers and international bankers, all of whom will team up with the Antichrist, who will take the helm at the UN and move its headquarters to Babylon, Iraq. The Tribulation follows in which God visits unspeakable plagues on the Earth amid a climactic worldwide battle waged by a band of new believers against Satan and the Antichrist. The “good guys,” are Christian believers, Israel, and a phalanx of 144,000 Jews who accept Jesus.

Prominent Christian leaders condemned this story as “unscholarly” and a “perversion” of the Bible. Plus, the story makes no logical sense in contemporary political reality since the UN, international bankers and Israel have been inextricably connected since 1948. Plus, Babylon is, at this time, a ruins.

Tim La Haye’s Left Behind series is shaped by the 1909 Scofield Reference Bible.

According to and others, Scofield is a story in himself. His behind-the-scenes handlers included 33rd degree Freemason George Bannerman Dealey, owner of the Dallas Morning News, the Rothschild-owned Oxford Press which published his Bible, noted Zionist Dr. William Eugene Blackstone who pushed his theories with the help of the Moody Bible Institute and, of course Darby, with his fundamental assumption that things on earth would progressively worsen until the Antichrist, also known as “the Beast,” arose.

What about the Christians’ biblically mandated allegiance to Israel?

The popularity of dispensationalism and its corresponding “rapture” theory has declined sharply since the 1970s due to notorious corruption in evangelical organizations and because many of today’s Christians recognize the “rapture” is not in the Bible. However, they still believe Christians are bound by the prophesy of Balaam in Numbers 24:9 and the blessing of Isaac in Genesis 27:29 concerning Israel, which reads, “Blessed is he that blesseth thee, and cursed is he that curseth thee.”

Of all the prophesies in the Bible used by today’s religious orders to subdue the Christians, Numbers 24:9 is up there with Romans 13 as among the most powerful. Bible-reading Christians are led to believe they must back Israel at any cost or be cursed by God.

However, after the curse of Balaam, God told Moses that if Israel did not keep His commands, stipulations and decrees, He would destroy them from the face of the land (Deut 6:15-16), which he has done twice—In 585 BC and again in 70 AD.

Who (or what) is the “state” of Israel: The Rothschild connection

The current Armageddon plot was hatched in the late 18th century by a Khazarian, or “Ashkenazi” Jew, whose family had migrated to Germany from the area by the Caspian Sea now called Georgia. His name was Mayer Amschel Bauer (1744-1812), which he changed to Mayer Amschel Rothschild, (“Rot,” meaning “Red,” and “Schild,” meaning “Sign”) after the red hexagram which his father, a moneylender, placed over the door of his bank in Frankfurt, Germany. The red hexagram geometrically and numerically translates into the number 666. Rothschild claimed to be Jewish because the Khazars, descendents of Noah’s youngest son Japheth (as opposed to being descendants of Abraham, a descendent of Noah’s oldest son Shem), had converted to the Jewish faith by sovereign edict in AD 740. That the Rothschilds were genetically unrelated to the biblical Jews was inconsequential to them since they intended to redefine Bible prophecy to better serve their long-term economic goals.

Rothschild became associated with the court of Prince William IX of Hesse-Hanau, one of the richest royal houses in Europe and quickly discovered that loaning money to governments and royalty is more profitable than loaning to commoners, as the loans are bigger and secured by the nation’s taxes and resource wealth.

In 1770, Rothschild drew up plans for the creation of the Illuminati, which Dr. Henry Makow in his book Illuminati: The Cult that Hijacked the World (2008) (see ad page 4), tells us is based upon the Talmud (a book of interpretations of the Rabbinical [Pharisee] Jews that is full of contempt for non-Jews) and the Cabala, the basis of modern occultism, sex worship, violence, fear and the “New Age Movement” that has engulfed the world. As a result of this influence, the arc of Western Civilization has gone from “ascent”—belief in God—focused on the higher centers of love, joy, purity and selflessness, to descent—belief in Satan—focused on the lower centers of consciousness like those of power, wealth and physical gratification. The apex was called the “Enlightenment,” when the “Illuminated ones”—a Luciferian term meaning “keepers of the light”—took over for God. Typical of Satan, decline into moral darkness is represented as light.

In 1776 Adam Weishaupt, who wrote, “The Lodge shall be our nursery,” was appointed to reorganize the Illuminati which was merged with Freemasonry in 1782. According to Andre Krylienko (The Red Thread, 1997) the merger was consecrated “to enlist non-Jews consciously or unconsciously in the service of Jewry.”

Within the lodge system, corruptible non-Jews would be let in on the true agenda and allowed to rise in ranks; those not suited for ruthlessness would remain in the Masonic lodge as “useful idiots”—innocents who cannot conceive they’ve been betrayed, who maintain the benevolent and socially-concerned facade of the lodge while attacking anyone who dares question the “cause.”

The Nineteenth century:

The “Age of the Rothschilds”

Mayer Amschel Rothschild (pictured above) fathered five legitimate sons, one bastard son and five daughters. His five sons opened banks in England, Austria, Denmark, France and the United States. In 1790, he declared, “Let me issue and control a nation’s money and I care not who makes its laws.”

On Feb. 21, 1791, President Washington’s Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton established the First Bank of the United States, a private, Rothschild-backed central bank in America with a 20-year charter.

When Congress voted against the charter’s renewal in 1811, Rothschild’s son Nathan stated, “The United States will find itself involved in a most disastrous war.”

The following year, the “War of 1812” began.

In 1816 Congress voted for a second Rothschild-dominated central bank, ending the British/American War of 1812. President Andrew Jackson refused to renew The Second Bank of the United States’ charter in 1836 and it’s doors closed by 1840.

In 1806, Rothschild bank-backed Napoleon I declared his intention to remove the house of Hesse-Cassel from power. Prince William IX fled to Denmark entrusting his fortune, valued at 3,000,000 U.S. dollars, to Mayer Amschel Rothschild for safekeeping.

According to the 1905 Jewish Encyclopaedia, Nathan Rothschild invested this $3,000,000 in gold from the East India Company, planning to use it for the British Duke of Wellington’s upcoming campaign against Napoleon’s French army. He made, “no less than four profits: On the sale of Wellington’s paper which he bought at 50 cents on the dollar and collected at par; on the sale of gold to Wellington; on its repurchase; and on forwarding it to Portugal.”

The “seed capital,” as the story goes, was never returned to Prince William IX.

In 1815, the Rothschilds financed both sides of the French/English war with their respective banks. They also monopolized the courier services delivering news of the outcome of the battle of Waterloo. Their stock traders liquidated their British stock, causing others at the stock exchange to believe Britain had lost. They then secretly repurchased those bonds at pennies on the dollar. When the news arrived that Britain had actually won the war, Rothschild had a return of 20 to 1 on his investment. This gave the Rothschild family complete control of the British economy and forced England to set up a new Bank of England, which Nathan Rothschild controlled.

In 1821 Kalmann (Carl) Mayer Rothschild went to Naples, Italy, to set up business with the Vatican and Pope Gregory XVI. By 1823, the Rothschilds had taken over the financial operations of the Catholic Church worldwide.

The Rothschilds underwrote Karl Marx who, in 1848, published The Communist Manifesto (communism, according to Makow, is a Masonic order and its leaders are Masons), which demands the nationalization of private property and the destruction of individual liberty and families in the name of “equality,” an experiment they performed on Russia 70 years later at the expense of 40 million peasants—including Russian Jews.

As the 19th century came to an end, it is estimated that the Rothschild family controlled half the wealth of the world.

The Final Stage

In 1913 the Rothschilds set up their third and current central bank in America, the Federal Reserve Bank, with the help of their agents JP Morgan and JD Rockefeller, whose investments in American industry had been Rothschild-financed since 1865.

In 1914, at the start of World War I, the German Rothschilds loaned money to the Germans, the British Rothschilds loaned money to the British and the French Rothschilds loaned money to the French. The Rothschilds also controlled the three main European news agencies, Wolff in Germany, Reuters in England and Havas in France and used them to stir the public into fervor for war.

Before the end of the year Rothschild agent Louis Brandeis sent a Zionist delegation from America to Britain with a promise to bring America into the war on the side of the British, provided the British agree to give the land of Palestine to the Rothschilds. The Rothschild propaganda machine then went into overdrive in America. The coast-to-coast effort led to President Wilson reneging on his campaign promises to “keep your sons out of war.” America entered the First World War on April 6, 1917.

On November 2, 1917, the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, also an occultist, drafted a letter commonly known as the, “Balfour Declaration,” which gave the House of Rothschild 80 percent of the land now called Israel for “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.”

In 1921, under the orders of Rothschild agent Jacob Schiff, the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) was founded as an organization in America to select politicians to carry on the Rothschild conspiracy.

In 1929 the Federal Reserve crashed the United States economy by contracting the money supply. It took only 20 years, from 1913 to 1933, for the Rothschilds to officially bankrupt this country.

The Rothschilds, Hitler and Israel

On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. He drove Jews, many of whom were communists, out of governmental positions within Germany. As a result, Ashkenazi Jew Samuel Untermyer, the New York attorney who not only arranged for the publication of the Scofield Bible with Rothschild, but also pressured President Wilson to sign the Federal Reserve Act, made a radio speech August 7, 1933, saying, “The Jews are the aristocrats of the world…Our campaign is…the economic boycott against all German goods, shipping and services… Each of you …must refuse to deal with any merchant or shopkeeper who sells any German-made goods or who patronizes German ships or shipping.”

Jews throughout America protested and damaged shops in which they found any products with, “Made in Germany,” printed on them, causing stores to have to dump these products or risk bankruptcy. Once the effects of this boycott began to be felt in Germany, the Germans, who had demonstrated no violence towards the Jews up to this point, began boycotting Jewish stores in the same manner.

Meanwhile, Rothschild financed IBM—which supplied punch card machines the Nazis used to manage the identification and social expulsion of Jews, the confiscation of their property and administrate their concentrated encampment.

In 1934 Swiss banking secrecy laws were reformed: In preparation for the Rothschild-engineered Second World War in which, as usual, they would fund both sides, it became an imprisonable offense for any bank employee to violate bank secrecy. Also that year, President Roosevelt ordered the all-seeing eye to be placed upon all new dollar bills along with the motto, “Novus Ordo Seclorum,” Latin for, “A New Order of the Ages.”

On September 1, 1939, the Second World War started when Germany invaded Poland. The war went as planned: $billions were spent, millions were killed and the state of Israel was created.

Tribunals were convened after the war to investigate and punish Nazi war criminals. If there was any mention as to which bankers were providing Hitler with financial assistance, that testimony has been edited from the historical record.

In 1945 giant steps towards the Rothschilds’ goal of world domination were achieved when the United Nations was approved—one year after their banking success at Bretton Woods, which established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.

In 1947 the British transferred control of Palestine to the United Nations, which resolved to have Palestine partitioned into two states, one Jewish and one Arab, with Jerusalem to remain as an international zone. In the spring of 1948, according to historian Andrew Hitchcock (author of The Synagog of Satan and History of the House of Rothschild []), the Rothschilds bribed President Harry S. Truman with $2 million in campaign funds to recognize Israel as a sovereign state. The flag of Israel was unveiled and, despite tremendous opposition, the emblem on the flag is a blue colored version of the Rothschild red hexagram.

According to Simon Schama in his book, Two Rothschilds and the Land of Israel (1978), the House of Rothschild funded the Nazis and then founded Israel, not as a home for Jewish people, but as a base for the terrorists who created that state in order to operate a global terror and political manipulation network. The influence of its intelligence arm, Mossad, is vast for this tiny country because it is funded by the Rothschild global power elite. The motto of the Mossad is probably the most disgusting secret service motto in the world: “By way of deception, thou shalt do war.”

Henry H. Klein, wrote in A Jew Warns Jews (1947), “Political Zionism is an agency of Big Business. It is being used by Jewish and Christian financiers in this country and Great Britain, to make Jews believe that Palestine will be ruled by a descendant of King David who will ultimately rule the world. What delusion! It will lead to war between Arabs and Jews and eventually to war between Muslims and non-Muslims. That will be the turning point of history.”

In Henry Makow’s book Illuminati, he observes that “[g]enuine Jewish people are being used. Jewish leadership has perverted the idea of a holy people chosen to advocate morality into a ‘self chosen’ elite to take God’s place. But when critics suggest that the ‘chosen’ are being misled and betrayed, they are accused of being ‘anti-Semitic’ and charged with ‘hate-crimes.’”

The end times biblical script

In 1871, General Albert Pike who, since 1859 had been the most powerful Freemason of his time in America, completed a military blueprint for the Illuminati. It included three world wars and various revolutions throughout the world, culminating into moving Rothschild’s great conspiracy into its final stage.

The first world war would be fought for the purpose of destroying the Tsar in Russia because he refused to allow Rothschild to put a bank in his country. The Tsar would be replaced with communism which would be used to attack religions, predominantly Christianity.

The second world war would be used to foment the controversy between fascism and political Zionism, the Masonic international Jewish political movement that has supported the reestablishment of a homeland for the Jewish People in Palestine. Using the slaughter of Jews in Germany to bring hatred against the German people, this war would also increase the power of communism to a level equaling that of united Christendom.

The third world war would be played out by stirring up hatred of the Muslim world for the purposes of playing the Islamic world and the Zionists against one another. While this is going on, the remaining nations would be forced to fight themselves into a state of mental, physical, spiritual and economic exhaustion.

According to Makow, organized Jewry and its Masonic allies are following this script, based on end times biblical prophesies. It calls for mass destruction of all people. The New World Order would then rise from the debris.

As the world is being readied for world war three, there are only five nations left in the world without a Rothschild-controlled central bank: Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Cuba and Libya. According to the American Free Press (3/16/09), every American bank is now part of the Rothschild-owned Federal Reserve scam.

Anti-Semitism and the ADL

The Cabalists (students of the Jewish Cabala) are the actual anti-Semites, Makow asserts. Their ruse is to foster the belief among non-Jews that all the Jews are to blame for the machinations of a relative few, similar to blaming all Italians for the Mafia. Set up as scapegoats for the diabolical few, duped Jews cover for the Rothschilds, who have suppressed normal Jewish cultural/spiritual expression while hijacking the Jewish people via “anti-Semitism” into advancing their Illuminati banker plan for world government dictatorship.

Preston pointed out that the Israel-lobby-controlled Anti-Defamation League (ADL) was created by Jacob Schiff in 1913 to slander anyone who questions or challenges the Rothschild global conspiracy as “anti-Semitic.” He stated in his book that the ADL has created new categories of anti-Semites, which include those who:

• Do not believe that Israel remains God’s chosen people;

• affirm that old covenant Israel was guilty of killing the Lord;

• affirm that God has already fulfilled all of His prophesies to Israel;

• believe the “State of Israel” does not belong to the Jews today;

• affirm there is no such thing as a racially pure nation of Israel;

• deny that the UN creation of Israel in 1948 was the fulfillment of Biblical prophesy;

• question the validity of the Holocaust and;

• those who deny the “rapture” as God’s way of removing the [Christian] church so He can once again resume His exclusive dealings with Israel, including animal sacrifices and Levitical (Old Testament) priesthood.

It is interesting to note that the Holocaust is the only historical event for which you can be imprisoned anywhere in the world for questioning it, Preston added.

So…what are today’s

Christians to do?

Preston stated that the “end of the age” referred to in Revelation and Matthew is the same as that spoken of in Daniel 500 years earlier. It refers to the end of the old covenant between God and Israel, made with Abraham. Preston quoted the Apostle Paul saying that this covenant had expired (Gal. 4:31-5:2), as Paul completed his mission to bring the word of God to “all the earth.” (Rom. 10:18; Col. 1:5-6; Titus 2:11).

The “state of Israel,” as a geographical location, from the river of Egypt (Nile) to the great river Euphrates, was given to Abraham in 2081 BC (Gen 15:17-21) as part of that covenant. When Jesus came, he brought the new covenant and Israel fell, to be replaced by Christianity. Jesus told His disciples, “This is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you.”

Is dispensationalist premillennial theology a Luciferian plan to cause Christians to think if they go against Israel’s drive for one world government, however evil, they are going against God and delaying the second coming of Christ?

But what if Jesus already came? What if the “sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind [that] filled all the house….and appeared unto them cloven tongues as of fire (Acts 2:2)” was “the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory….with a great sound of a trumpet (Matt. 24:30-31)?”

Jesus’ title, the “Christ” translates to “the anointed one,” which translates to “Messiah.” These are all references to a king. Jewish kings were anointed, not crowned. Jesus came not as a physical king to save the Jews from the Roman Empire as they hoped, but as their spiritual king, to save them from the hypocritical Rabbinical Church; for this he was crucified.

When the Bible was translated into English, who determined that Jesus’ return was not to be a glorious spiritual return? Who determined that Revelation referred to anything other than the “end of the age” known to St. John, a Jew whose entire life was saturated with Old Testament prophecy?

If the old covenant was cancelled by the sacrifice of God’s son and the destruction of the temple and dispersion of Israel in 70 AD, how could prophecy still need to be fulfilled by the creation of a new “state of Israel” in 1948? If the doctrine of “premillennialism” is only 200 years old, why is it the only doctrine the major Christian churches and the global corporate media promote?

This is not coincidence. God does not need the Rothschilds to help Him fulfill prophecy. This premillennialist “prophecy” is actively being fulfilled by man to accomplish a destructive end designed by man. The Rothschilds have had the book of Revelation in their possession for over 250 years and the political influence to use the book to intentionally misguide the faithful to accomplish their sinister ends.

“The central banking cartel is the only group with both the motive and the means to take over the world,” wrote Makow. “Consisting mainly of Cabala-believing Jews and Freemasons, it is the head of the octopus. Zionism, Freemasonry, organized Jewry, Imperialism, Jesuits, Vatican, Intelligence agencies, mass media, etc. are among countless octopus arms. [Its] motive is to protect its priceless but fraudulent private monopoly over public (government) credit (money creation). [It] needs a ‘world government’…” to protect its unlimited wealth and power. “[It]s ideology of world tyranny, Illuminism…. preaches that man (i.e. the bankers) can usurp the place of God and redefine truth,” destroying Christianity, nation-states and family by promoting homosexuality and promiscuity and the end of inheritance and private property.

Christians must recognize that the teachings of Jesus have been subverted to suit the cause of a satanic cult determined to destroy civilization and institute a violent police state. It has banished God from public life and placed itself as the regent “governing authority” in top political seats and in church hierarchies worldwide.

Makow, in Illuminati, commented that God speaks to us through our spirit and conscience. We don’t hear him because our minds are like mirrors facing the world. We need to turn the mirror around so it faces the soul inside and create our own world based on making spiritual reality paramount. God is synonymous with spiritual ideals: Love, truth, justice and beauty.

As Christians, we are obligated to research the origins of our beliefs; no longer can we accept—on faith alone—what we have been taught regarding end times theology. An Idaho Baptist elder recently said that we must change our hearts to be open to what God wants us to do; get quiet, away from life’s clutter as Jesus did and listen. Then act. We have something the NWO doesn’t have and that is Love. We must focus on that.

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Christian Pharisees

Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.
Then understood they how that he bade them not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.

Jesus portrays the Pharisees as impatient with outward, ritual observance of minutiae which made them look acceptable and virtuous outwardly but left the inner person unreformed.

Evangelical Christians are most in danger of becoming Pharisees. The spirit of the Pharisee is dangerous because it is opposed to the Spirit of Christ

One of the common critiques leveled at present-day Christianity is that it’s a religion full of hypocritical people. A 2013 Barna Group study examines the degree to which this perception may be accurate. The survey revealed that 51% of the North American Christians polled all possess attitudes and actions that are more like the Pharisees than they are like Christ. In other words, the attitudes of most Christians were described as self-righteous and hypocritical. According to the study, only 14% of Christians surveyed reflected attitudes and actions that better resembled the attitudes and actions of Christ.

There is benefit to be derived from any criticism received so long as that criticism is offered in a spirit of love and correction. Criticism offered absent the love of Christ is not offered for correction but rather for condemnation. Criticism expressed by someone who views himself as one of the only “truly righteous” is only going to alienate others. These are modern-day Pharisees and the role that they can play for the cause of Christ is minimized simply because of attitude.

Matthew 16:13-20 (KJV)

When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am? And they said, Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets. He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am? And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. 

And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven. And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. 

And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Then charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was Jesus the Christ.

So, who wrote the New Testament? It must have been Peter, right?

There are 27 books in the New Testament, 13 of the books are traditionally ascribed to Paul. Much of the New Testament is made up of his letters to churches. We know for certain that Paul wrote at least thirteen letters that are included in the New Testament. Scholars have debated whether or not Hebrews was written by Paul; if Paul wrote Hebrews, that would make his total contribution to the Bible fourteen books.

Yet, Paul did not know Jesus during his teaching ministry and was never a disciple of Jesus. 

The man known to us as Paul began life as Saul of Tarsus. Paul was likely born between the years of 5 BC and 5 AD. The Book of Acts indicates that Paul was a Roman citizen by birth. He was from a devout Jewish family in the city of Tarsus–one of the largest trade centers on the Mediterranean coast. It had been in existence several hundred years prior to his birth. It was renowned for its university. During the time of Alexander the Great, who died in 323 BC, Tarsus was the most influential city in Asia Minor.

Paul referred to himself as being “of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of the Hebrews; a Pharisee”.

So, Paul was a Roman citizen and a Pharisee. Aren’t these are the same groups that had Jesus crucified and that did the crucifying?

Galatians 2 (KJV)

But when Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed. For before that certain came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them which were of the circumcision. And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him; insomuch that Barnabas also was carried away with their dissimulation. But when I saw that they walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel,

I said unto Peter before them all, If thou, being a Jew, livest after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, why compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews? We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles,

Rather than looking to the apostles in Jerusalem for his message or for approval for his ministry, Paul had little contact with them, visiting Jerusalem and the church leaders only twice in 17 years. On these occasions he did not stay long, and he met with only three of the apostles—Peter, James, and John.

Not only did he not seek the approval of the apostles, Paul actually dared to publicly rebuke them when they were inconsistent with the gospel. This is Paul’s last historical proof of his independence as an apostle.

Peter’s custom (at least while he was with these Gentile Christians) was to live like them, rather than to live as a Jew. Such customs were not new to Peter, for that was the way he had been instructed to associate with Cornelius and the other Gentiles who had gathered at his house (Acts 10). A sequence of events was set in motion by Paul’s confrontation of Peter. Peter gradually began to withdraw from the Gentiles and to avoid them.  

A similar change occurred at the dinner table at Antioch. Apparently the party “from James” ate at first by themselves, while the rest, both Jews and Gentiles, ate together. Then these Jewish guests were joined by Peter and eventually by all the other Jewish Christians (except Paul). Finally, there were two groups at meal time, the Jewish party and the Gentile party. If the church at Antioch observed communion with a common meal as we would expect (cf. 1 Cor. 11:17-34), the problem then was intensified for their worship had become divided. When Paul recognized the seriousness of the situation he confronted Peter personally and publicly (vv. 11, 14). Peter was corrected before all because the Jews had been wrong to follow him, and the Gentiles had been injured by their actions.

After Paul’s rebuke, Peter began to live as a Jew, compelling the Gentile believers to live like him in order to have fellowship with him and the other Jewish believers. Gentile Christians were required to live like the Jews.

We are all aware of the teaching of our Lord in Matthew 18, which instructs us to confront an erring brother privately.

The very root of the problem was the pride which the Judaizers had in their Jewishness that caused them to feel smugly superior to the Gentile Christians. This is seen in the slogan of the Judaizers, mirroring the arrogance which was at the root of the refusal of the men “from James” to eat with the Gentiles: “We are Jews by nature, and not sinners from among the Gentiles.”

The subject of Gentiles and the Torah was also debated among the rabbis as recorded in the Talmud. This resulted in the doctrine of the Seven Laws of Noah, to be followed by gentiles, as well as the determination that “gentiles may not be taught the Torah.” The 18th-century Rabbi Jacob Emden was of the opinion that Jesus’ original objective, and especially Paul’s, was only to convert Gentiles to the Seven Laws of Noah while allowing Jews to follow full Mosaic Law.

A key contested issue is the historicity of the depiction of Paul in Acts. According to the majority viewpoint, Acts described Paul differently from how Paul describes himself, both factually and theologically. Acts differed with Paul’s letters on important issues, such as the Law, Paul’s own apostleship, and his relation to the Jerusalem church.

It has been claimed that the writer of Acts used the writings of Josephus (specifically “Antiquities of the Jews”), as a historical source. Several scholars have criticised the writer’s use of his source materials. For example, Richard Heard has written that: ‘in his narrative in the early part of Acts he seems to be stringing together, as best he may, a number of different stories and narratives, some of which appear, by the time they reached him, to have been seriously distorted in the telling.’

1 Corinthians 9 (KJV)

Am I am not an apostle? am I not free? have I not seen Jesus Christ our Lord? are not ye my work in the Lord? If I be not an apostle unto others, yet doubtless I am to you: for the seal of mine apostleship are ye in the Lord.

And unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews; to them that are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain them that are under the law; To them that are without law, as without law, (being not without law to God, but under the law to Christ,) that I might gain them that are without law.  To the weak became I as weak, that I might gain the weak: I am made all things to all men, that I might by all means save some. And this I do for the gospel’s sake, that I might be partaker thereof with you.

According to writings in the New Testament, Paul was dedicated to the persecution of the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem.

In the narrative of the Acts of the Apostles, Paul was traveling on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus on a mission to “bring them which were there bound unto Jerusalem” when the resurrected Jesus appeared to him in a great light. He was struck blind but, after three days, his sight was restored by Ananias of Damascus, and Paul began to preach that Jesus of Nazareth is the Jewish Messiah and the Son of God. Approximately half of the book of Acts deals with Paul’s life and works.

Fourteen of the twenty-seven books in the New Testament have traditionally been attributed to Paul. Seven of the epistles are undisputed by scholars as being authentic, with varying degrees of argument about the remainder. Pauline authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews is not asserted in the Epistle itself and was already doubted in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. It was almost unquestioningly accepted from the 5th to the 16th centuries that Paul was the author of Hebrews. The other six are believed by some scholars to have come from followers writing in his name, using material from Paul’s surviving letters and letters written by him that no longer survive. Other scholars argue that the idea of a pseudonymous author for the disputed epistles raises many problems.

Paul’s epistles continue to be vital roots of the theology, worship, and pastoral life in the Catholic and Protestant traditions of the West, and the Orthodox traditions of the East.

Paul’s influence on Christian thought and practice has been characterized as being as “profound as it is pervasive”.

Acts 7 (KJV)

When they heard these things, they were cut to the heart, and they gnashed on him with their teeth. But he, being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up stedfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God, And said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God. Then they cried out with a loud voice, and stopped their ears, and ran upon him with one accord, 

And cast him out of the city, and stoned him: and the witnesses laid down their clothes at a young man’s feet, whose name was Saul. 

And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. And he kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, Lord, lay not this sin to their charge. And when he had said this, he fell asleep. 

Acts 8 (KJV)

And Saul was consenting unto his death.

And at that time there was a great persecution against the church which was at Jerusalem; and they were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judaea and Samaria, except the apostles. And devout men carried Stephen to his burial, and made great lamentation over him. 

As for Saul, he made havock of the church, entering into every house, and haling men and women committed them to prison.

Acts 22 (KJV)

Men, brethren, and fathers, hear ye my defence which I make now unto you. (And when they heard that he spake in the Hebrew tongue to them, they kept the more silence: and he saith,) I am verily a man which am a Jew, born in Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, yet brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, and taught according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers, and was zealous toward God, as ye all are this day. And I persecuted this way unto the death, binding and delivering into prisons both men and women.

Acts 9 (KJV)

And straightway he preached Christ in the synagogues, that he is the Son of God. But all that heard him were amazed, and said; Is not this he that destroyed them which called on this name in Jerusalem, and came hither for that intent, that he might bring them bound unto the chief priests? 

Who were the Pharisees during the time of Christ?

The origin of the word “Pharisee” comes from “Pharisaios (far-is-ah’-yos)” meaning a separatist, i.e. exclusively religious; a Pharisean, i.e. Jewish sectary. According to Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary, the Pharisees were a religious and political party in Palestine in New Testament times. They were especially known for insisting that the law of God be observed as the scribes interpreted it and for their special commitment to keeping the laws of tithing and ritual purity (Matt 23:23-26; Mark 7:1-13; Luke 11:37-42; 18:12). One distinctive feature of the Pharisees was their strong commitment to observing the law of God as it was interpreted and applied by the scribes. According to the New Testament, the Pharisees were concerned about strictly interpreting and keeping the law on all matters (Acts 26:5), including the Sabbath (Mark 2:24), divorce (Mark 10:2), oaths (Matt 23:16-22), the wearing of Phylacteries and Fringes (Matt 23:5), and other matters. Since Pharisees found that other Jews were not careful enough about keeping the laws of tithing and ritual purity, they felt it was necessary to place limits on their contacts with other Jews as well as with Gentiles. For example, they could not eat in the home of a non-Pharisee, since they could not be sure that the food had been properly tithed and kept ritually pure.

Luke 11:37-54 (KJV)

And as he spake, a certain Pharisee besought him to dine with him: and he went in, and sat down to meat. And when the Pharisee saw it, he marvelled that he had not first washed before dinner. And the Lord said unto him, Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter; but your inward part is full of ravening and wickedness. Ye fools, did not he that made that which is without make that which is within also? But rather give alms of such things as ye have; and, behold, all things are clean unto you. But woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye tithe mint and rue and all manner of herbs, and pass over judgment and the love of God: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone. Woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye love the uppermost seats in the synagogues, and greetings in the markets. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are as graves which appear not, and the men that walk over them are not aware of them. Then answered one of the lawyers, and said unto him, Master, thus saying thou reproachest us also. And he said, Woe unto you also, ye lawyers! for ye lade men with burdens grievous to be borne, and ye yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fingers. Woe unto you! for ye build the sepulchres of the prophets, and your fathers killed them. Truly ye bear witness that ye allow the deeds of your fathers: for they indeed killed them, and ye build their sepulchres. Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall slay and persecute: That the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation; From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias which perished between the altar and the temple: verily I say unto you, It shall be required of this generation. Woe unto you, lawyers! for ye have taken away the key of knowledge: ye entered not in yourselves, and them that were entering in ye hindered. And as he said these things unto them, the scribes and the Pharisees began to urge him vehemently, and to provoke him to speak of many things: Laying wait for him, and seeking to catch something out of his mouth, that they might accuse him.

Matthew 23:1-39 (KJV)

Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples, Saying The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat: All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not. For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men’s shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers. But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments, And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues, And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi. But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren. And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.  Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ. But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant. And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted. But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows’ houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves. Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple, he is a debtor! Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? And, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is upon it, he is guilty. Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? Whoso therefore shall swear by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon. And whoso shall swear by the temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein. And he that shall swear by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone. Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess. Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean also. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men’s bones, and of all uncleanness. Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous, And say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets. Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers. Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell? Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city: That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate. For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

Mark 12:35-40 (KJV)

And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the temple, How say the scribes that Christ is the son of David? For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool. David therefore himself calleth him Lord; and whence is he then his son? And the common people heard him gladly. And he said unto them in his doctrine, Beware of the scribes, which love to go in long clothing, and love salutations in the marketplaces, And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost rooms at feasts: Which devour widows’ houses, and for a pretence make long prayers: these shall receive greater damnation.

Luke 20:45-47 (KJV)

Then in the audience of all the people he said unto his disciples, Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts; Which devour widows’ houses, and for a shew make long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation.

The woes mostly criticise the Pharisees for hypocrisy and perjury. They illustrate the differences between inner and outer moral states.

The woes do not occur in the same point of the narrative in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. In Matthew they occur shortly before Jesus returns to Jerusalem for his last few days before being crucified, while in Luke they occur shortly after the Lord’s prayer is given and the disciples are first sent out over the land. Before introducing the woes themselves, Matthew states that Jesus criticized them for taking the place of honor at banquets, for wearing ostentatious clothing, for encouraging people to call them Rabbi.

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Electoral “Slavery” College

It is strictly the choice of the Electoral College to let the vote of every U.S. citizen have even the slightest bearing on the result of any U.S. Presidential election. 

The President of the United States of America, the highest office in the land, is not elected by the national popular vote, but through an Electoral College of 538 votes.

Although, all members of the United States Congress are directly elected by the votes of the people of each state; and governors in all 50 states are also elected by popular vote.

In the 2016 election, Clinton currently leads Trump by 1,667,041 votes and is understood to have lost.

Americans did not directly vote for senators for the first 125 years of the Federal Government. The Constitution, as it was adopted in 1788, stated that senators would be elected by state legislatures.

The Seventeenth Amendment (Amendment XVII) to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states. The amendment supersedes Article I, §3, Clauses 1 and 2 of the Constitution. The United States House of Representatives has been a directly elected body, since 1788.

When the founders of the U.S. Constitution in 1787 considered whether America should let the people elect their president through a popular vote, James Madison said that “Negroes” in the South presented a “difficulty … of a serious nature.”

During that same speech on Thursday, July 19, Madison instead proposed a prototype for the same Electoral College system the country uses today. Each state has a number of electoral votes roughly proportioned to population and the candidate who wins the majority of votes wins the election.

When the founders of the U.S. Constitution in 1787 considered whether America should let the people elect their president through a popular vote, James Madison said that “Negroes” in the South presented a “difficulty … of a serious nature.”

Madison, now known as the “Father of the Constitution,” was a slave-owner in Virginia, which at the time was the most populous of the 13 states if the count included slaves, who comprised about 40 percent of its population.

During that key speech at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Madison said that with a popular vote, the Southern states, “could have no influence in the election on the score of Negroes.”

Madison knew that the North would outnumber the South, despite there being more than half a million slaves in the South who were their economic vitality, but could not vote. His proposition for the Electoral College included the “three-fifths compromise,” where black people could be counted as three-fifths of a person, instead of a whole. This clause garnered the state 12 out of 91 electoral votes, more than a quarter of what a president needed to win.

“None of this is about slaves voting,” said Finkelman, “The debates are in part about political power and also the fundamental immorality of counting slaves for the purpose of giving political power to the master class.”

He said the Electoral College’s three-fifths clause enabled Thomas Jefferson, who owned more than a hundred slaves, to beat out in 1800 John Adams, who was opposed to slavery, since the South had a stronghold.

While slavery was abolished, and the Civil War led to citizenship and voting rights for black people, the Electoral College remained intact. Another law professor, who has also written that the Constitution is pro-slavery, argues that it gave states the autonomy to introduce discriminatory voting laws, despite the Voting Rights Act of 1965 that was built to prevent it.

The Troubling Reason the Electoral College Exists

Some claim that the founding fathers chose the Electoral College over direct election in order to balance the interests of high-population and low-population states. But the deepest political divisions in America have always run not between big and small states, but between the north and the south, and between the coasts and the interior.

Standard civics-class accounts of the Electoral College rarely mention the real demon dooming direct national election in 1787 and 1803: slavery.

At the Philadelphia convention, the visionary Pennsylvanian James Wilson proposed direct national election of the president. But the savvy Virginian James Madison responded that such a system would prove unacceptable to the South: “The right of suffrage was much more diffusive [i.e., extensive] in the Northern than the Southern States; and the latter could have no influence in the election on the score of Negroes.” In other words, in a direct election system, the North would outnumber the South, whose many slaves (more than half a million in all) of course could not vote. But the Electoral College—a prototype of which Madison proposed in this same speech—instead let each southern state count its slaves, albeit with a two-fifths discount, in computing its share of the overall count.

Virginia emerged as the big winner—the California of the Founding era—with 12 out of a total of 91 electoral votes allocated by the Philadelphia Constitution, more than a quarter of the 46 needed to win an election in the first round. After the 1800 census, Wilson’s free state of Pennsylvania had 10% more free persons than Virginia, but got 20% fewer electoral votes. Perversely, the more slaves Virginia (or any other slave state) bought or bred, the more electoral votes it would receive. Were a slave state to free any blacks who then moved North, the state could actually lose electoral votes.

If the system’s pro-slavery tilt was not overwhelmingly obvious when the Constitution was ratified, it quickly became so. For 32 of the Constitution’s first 36 years, a white slaveholding Virginian occupied the presidency.

Southerner Thomas Jefferson, for example, won the election of 1800-01 against Northerner John Adams in a race where the slavery-skew of the electoral college was the decisive margin of victory: without the extra electoral college votes generated by slavery, the mostly southern states that supported Jefferson would not have sufficed to give him a majority. As pointed observers remarked at the time, Thomas Jefferson metaphorically rode into the executive mansion on the backs of slaves.

The 1796 contest between Adams and Jefferson had featured an even sharper division between northern states and southern states. Thus, at the time the Twelfth Amendment tinkered with the Electoral College system rather than tossing it, the system’s pro-slavery bias was hardly a secret. Indeed, in the floor debate over the amendment in late 1803, Massachusetts Congressman Samuel Thatcher complained that “The representation of slaves adds thirteen members to this House in the present Congress, and eighteen Electors of President and Vice President at the next election.” But Thatcher’s complaint went unredressed. Once again, the North caved to the South by refusing to insist on direct national election.

The electoral college does not protect the interests of small states or racial minorities, does not provide presidents with effective coalitions for governing, and does little to protect the American polity from the alleged harms of direct election of the president. In fact, the electoral college distorts the presidential campaign so that candidates ignore most small states and some large ones and pay little attention to minorities, and it encourages third parties to run presidential candidates and discourages party competition in many states.

If presidents were elected by direct popular vote, they would wage a campaign and advertise all across the nation, rather than (as they do in the Electoral College system) concentrating almost all of their time and effort in a handful of battleground states. Only 18 of the 50 states received a visit from one of the candidates in the last two months of the last presidential election, simply because the margin between popular and Electoral votes wasn’t small enough to warrant their attention. The Electoral College system encourages candidates to pander to the interests of voters in a few closely contested states. A majority of attention and funds are aimed at Ohio, Florida, Pennsylvania and Virginia. With just over 50 percent of the popular votes in each state needed to win the entire state in the Electoral College, these four states have a lot of say in deciding who becomes president. They carry more Electoral votes per capita than other states.

There is no Constitutional provision or Federal law that requires Electors to vote according to the results of the popular vote in their states. Some states, however, require Electors to cast their votes according to the popular vote. These pledges fall into two categories—Electors bound by state law and those bound by pledges to political parties. The U.S. Supreme Court has held that the Constitution does not require that Electors be completely free to act as they choose and therefore, political parties may extract pledges from electors to vote for the parties’ nominees. 27 states have laws that require electors to vote for the candidate that gets the majority of the popular vote, there’s nothing in either the Constitution or in Federal law that requires they do so.

Because the Electoral College is “winner take all” in all but two states (Maine and Nebraska), people who disagree with the majority in their state are not represented. In Nebraska and Maine, the state winner receives two Electors and the winner of each congressional district receives one Elector. This system permits the Electors from Nebraska and Maine to be awarded to more than one candidate.

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Peace of a Planet – world

This is just a preview of a world peace plan that I am writing. It is called Peace of a Planet.
This part of the plan concentrates on Israel, Palestine and the West Bank.

These maps are still being revised.











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