Roosevelt’s campaign had promised to re-evaluate America’s commitment to the gold standard and, through a series of actions from March 6 to April 18, 1933, abandoned it.

Conservative businessmen and other supporters of the gold standard were dismayed. Hoover, who had championed the standard, wrote that its abandonment was the first step toward “communism, fascism, socialism, statism, planned economy.” He argued that the standard was needed to stop governments from “confiscating the savings of the people by manipulation of inflation and deflation….We have gold because we cannot trust Governments.”

Roosevelt also dissolved any “gold clause” within contracts, public or private, that guaranteed payment in gold. This clause was part of every government bond and most corporate bonds. “It was a standard feature of mortgage agreements and other contracts. For creditors, it offered protection against inflation or congressional tinkering with the currency.” For debtors, though, it was dangerous, as “The gold dollar, before Roosevelt reduced it, was $1.69. This meant that a bank, for example, could suddenly require a farmer to make mortgage payments in gold coin-transferring a $10,000 mortgage into one worth $16,900, raising the farmer’s debt burden by nearly 70 percent.” Likewise, the U.S. treasury could be required to pay the bearer of a $10,000 Liberty Bond $16,900 in gold coins. (The constitutionality of this Roosevelt policy was later challenged before the Supreme Court in the Gold Clause Cases, where it was upheld on narrow grounds.)

With the end of the gold standard, “conservative financiers were horrified. They viewed a currency not solidly backed by gold as inflationary, undermining both private and business fortunes and leading to national bankruptcy. Roosevelt was damned as a socialist or Communist out to destroy private enterprise by sapping the gold backing of wealth in order to subsidize the poor.”

Ending the gold standard allowed the country to escape the cycle of deflation, but the shift was not painless. “Since higher prices were not yet accompanied by higher wages, inflation meant lower [real] incomes for those fortunate enough to be employed. Until the effects of increased investment spending spread through the economy, there was little reason for investment incomes and hence consumption to rise dramatically. Industrial production remained volatile.”

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The Messiah of Septimania

There are times in history when a new discovery creates a firestorm of interest, like the discovery of the lost tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamen. Other time a historical breakthrough is a fizzle, greeted with indifference. Such was the undeserved fate of the discovery of the Jewish Kingdom of Septimania. This medieval kingdom in southern France arose in the eighth century, thriving for 140 years under the rule of six extraordinarily competent Jewish kings. The story of Septimania was unearthed roughly forty years ago by Professor Arthur J. Zuckerman, by dint of extraordinary research into medieval documents written in French, German, Arabic, Hebrew, and Latin. His book, published by Columbia University Press, promptly vanished into the black hole of dry academia, a true pity, for the astounding tale of Septimania deserves to be widely known, particularly in the Jewish community.

First things first. What was Septimania, and where in the world was it? Septimania. was a large land located in the French Midi, nestled just north of the Pyrenees, and given its name because veterans of the Roman Seventh Legion (Septimanii) settled there when they retired.

We are regaled from time to time with accounts of obscure Jewish communities in odd, unexpected places, like China or India or Afghanistan. But the only thing of interest about them is simply that they exist, or existed. The Jewish Kingdom of Septimania was nothing like that. It was quite large, encompassing the major cities of Narbonne, Toulouse, and Carcassonne, and it did a lot more than merely exist. It played a major role in the history of medieval France.

How on earth did it get there, and how could it have arisen, this Jewish kingdom nestled between hostile Catholic Franks to the north and hostile Islamic Moors to the south? Obviously, therein lies quite a tale.

For reasons lost to history, Septimania had a large Jewish population, particularly in the seaport city of Narbonne. When Pepin III, king of the Franks, decided to try to drive the Moors out of southern France and Spain, he found himself balked by the powerful walls of Narbonne which, after seven futile years of siege, he simply could not penetrate. Nor could he starve out Narbonne, for it was a seaport, being resupplied quite easily, since Pepin had no navy. He was getting desperate, out of money and facing catastrophic defeat, when he had a brilliant idea. He would offer the Jews of Narbonne 50,000 marks-an enormous sum, if they would contrive to open the gates of Narbonne for just a few minutes so his army could storm in. How could they refuse? Everyone knows how much the Jews love money.

They refused. The risk was far too high. If they failed, the Moors would massacre them, and from the point of view of the Moors, with good reason.

Shocked at their refusal, he re-thought the situation, then made them a second offer. Instead of money, he offered them Septimania-all of it–as an independent Jewish kingdom, with its own Jewish king and own Jewish army, in return for opening the gates. This time they accepted the risk. It was a Godfather-like offer they simply could not refuse. The Moors had never secured oaths of allegiance from the Jews, never even thinking about it, but in that era, this meant that the Jews of Narbonne were free to act in their own interests. The gates were opened. Narbonne fell. Pepin kept his word.

Now the Jews had their kingdom, but no king. Pepin had placed a very unusual condition on his offer. Whoever the Jews selected as their king had to be a direct lineal descendant of King David! Why? They would find out later, but they really didn’t care. This was precisely who they would want in any case. There was no such man in Septimania, so they sent to Babylonia for their king, because Babylonia at the time was the heart of Judaism with its great academies of learning at Sura and Pumbeditha. Many there claimed descent from David. Thus they got their king, and what a king they got!

His name was Natronai ben Zabinai, a Persian name. He was a scholar of such renown that he had been elected Exilarch in his twenties, an unheard-of youthful age. The Exilarch was considered in essence to be King of the Jews in Exile; his word and his decisions were law. Natronai spoke eight languages fluently. He had an eidetic memory, bringing the entire Babylonian Talmud to the West entirely from memory.

Something astonishing happened. He was proclaimed the long-awaited, long-tarried Messiah! King, yes, because they had made him king, but Messiah? Why? What was that all about?

It had been precisely 700 years since the Temple in Jerusalem had fallen to the Romans. Since then, countless prophecies, gleaned from scholarly readings of the Torah, proclaimed that the Jewish people had been punished by God for their sins by the destruction of the Temple, and that precisely 700 years later the Messiah would arrive to establish God’s kingdom on earth. Now, miraculously, out of the blue, comes word from the West that a Jewish kingdom has suddenly materialized out of nowhere, awaiting its king, awaiting the Messiah. The prophecies were fulfilled! A Jewish Kingdom was here! The Messiah was here! Exactly as prophecied!

That well might be, but Natronai had other pressing earthly concerns to deal with. Upon arriving in Septimania he immediately was faced with overwhelming demands-promulgating laws, levying taxes, establishing courts, raising an army-all the requirements of governance, all needing immediate imposition. Then, like a thunderbolt, came a message from King Charles, the successor of his father, Pepin III. As a part of the agreement to create Septimania, it was understand that, under the feudal system of the time, Natronai–who now took the Hebrew name of Machir-would give oaths of allegiance to the King of the Franks. King Charles requested that Machir marry his aunt Alda. A request from the King of the Franks was a command.

All now came clear. So this was why Pepin had required that the King of Septimania be a direct descendant of King David! The problem for Pepin, and for his son, King Charles, was that Pepin had usurped the throne of the Franks from the Merovingians, and thus there was no royal blood in their veins. This they desperately needed in order to establish the legitimacy of their dynasty. By this marriage of Alda to Machir, who was a direct lineal descendant of King David, they would not only have royal blood in the veins of their descendants, but the most royal blood possible, the blood of David himself!

But how could such a marriage take place? Alda was Catholic, and no Catholic priest would marry her to a Jew unless the Jew converted, which of course Machir absolutely could not do. On the other hand, no rabbi would marry Machir to a gentile unless she converted. An unsolvable dilemma? Apparently not, for marry they did, and had a legitimate son through whom Jewish blood now was intermingled with that of the Carolingian kings of France. How was this possible? History is silent. There was a way that perhaps it could be accomplished, based on the customs of the time. Whether in fact this way was used is purely speculative.

King Charles now called upon Machir to participate with him in his great campaign to drive the Moors from northern Spain. Have I mentioned that King Charles is better known as Charlemagne? No, I have not. But this is who he was, which means that Charlemagne had a Jewish uncle, and the Jewish kings of Septimania were related by blood to the Carolingian kings of France.

Machir proved to be an exceptional warrior-king, fighting with Charlemagne and in the process increasing the boundaries of Septimania fourfold, making it a true power in its own right. His successes doubtless were largely the result of his being hailed as Messiah by his Jewish subjects who fought valiantly following his Lion of Judah banner from victory to victory until in the year 793 Machir fell in battle in an insignificant skirmish on the banks of the River Weser in Pannoni.

Machir’s successor-kings played significant roles in the subsequent history of France, the borders of Septimania waxing and waning depending on the vagaries of combat and alliances. After 140 years, the Jewish Kingdom of Septimania disappeared when the last king of the Machiri dynasty died without a male heir.


At the moment I am reading a novel written by Lee Levin on Makhir Theodoric the first Jewish King of Septimania called “The Messiah of Septimania”. The author has drawn on Professor Arthur Zuckerman’s book on this Jewish Kingdom in southern France in the early Medieval period. It is a good read but due to the author not realising that the Carolingians were Catholics of Jewish origin he tries to explain how this Jewish son of an Exilarch could marry a Frankish Carolingian Princess that would be acceptable to both Jews and Christians. He also characterises the Princess Alda, Charlemagne and the other Catholics who he assumes are Gentiles in a negative light. In fact Charlemagne is also called David Kalonymus and his mother Judith [Bertrada/Bertha Goose foot/ Mother Goose] is a sister of Makhir.

Charlemagne (David Kalonymus ben Abba)

He also does not seem to know that there were two separate seiges of Narbonne- one by Charles Martel and the second one by King Pepin. The Chansons seem to confuse the seiges with each other. The chansons state that Aimeri d’Narbonne (Makhir/ Amorai ) captured the city in 739 in the reign of Charles Martel. Charles Martel had allied himself with this warrior Davidic Jewish family in the fight against the Muslims of Spain. Lee Levin in “The Messiah of Septimania” also tries to explain how a Jewish Davidic Rabbi and Prince also became a Warrior not realising that he came of generations of Warrior Princes in the Persian Empire.

Machir Theodoric in about 747 after the death of his wife Alda (married 729-30 AD) went to Scotland to aid the Kingdom of Strathclyde which was ruled by Davidic Jewish Catholic Kings who were related to Machir. He was known in the later Strathclyde king-lists as Tewdar or Teudebir and as St Machar in Aberdeen were he founded a Jewish synagogue which would later become the church of St Machar. Machar Tewdar married Princess Dunlaith a daughter of Israel the Red (Idwal Rotri) son of King Beli of Strathclyde. King Beli was a direct male line descendant of the Babylonian Exilarch Nathan II through his ancestor Nathan Todros the Judiarch of the Gewisse.

Israel the Red (Idwal Rotri)married Johanna a daughter of Ywrch (Arik/Erech) ap Cadwaladr of Gwynedd and Affadda of Brittany. Affadda was the daughter of King Alain Hir of Brittany and his wife Johanna the sister of Ahunai of the Holy Land. Machir and Dunlaith had a son Daniel Chuna (Dynwal/ Dumnagual/ Cynan /Demrost)[b.747]King of Strathclyde and Brittany. He married Princess Mahallt (Matilda) of Mide a daughter of King Conchobar of Midi and Princess Land of Ailech. Princess Land was the granddaughter of Princess Ailbine an aunt of King Makhir Todros of Septimania. Daniel Chuna was the father of Eugain or Erbin King of Strathclyde, Iago (Jacob) of Gwynedd, Gradlon Flam of Brittany and King Budic III Mor of Britanny. Jacob was the father of Atala (Ethyl) who married Israel I Guriad ha Makhiri a son of Theodoric II Nehemiah [b.730-d.790] the second King of Septimania. Many of the Royal Houses of traditional Davidic Descent sought to strengthen their Davidic status by intermarrying with the family of Ahunai, Judah Zakkai and Makhir.

Machir defeated King Angus of Picts and Scots in 750. While Machir was absent from Septimania in 750 Narbonne was once again attacked by the Muslims and occupied. They are said to have tortured Machir’s youngest son Gilbert (Guibelin /Gui Alberic /Yakar)by crucifying him. Gilbert survived his ordeal and went on to become the Count of Rouergue. Machir returned to France in 752 to join King Pepin in the seige of Narbonne. In 759 Pepin would elevate Machir from being the Duke of Septimania to being an anointed King of Septimania. He would die or abdicate around 765 AD and was succeeded by his son Theodoric Nehemiah as Davidic King of Septimania. Machir with his second wife Dunlaith had a daughter Dunne (b.755 Septimania)and Bertrada (Bertha)(b.760). In 768 Charlemagne, on succeeding his father, confirmed the Carolingian alliance with King Theodoric II Nehemiah (Deitrich Namon/ Aumery le Chetif) of Septimania [r.765- 775 as King of Septimania]the son of King Theodoric I Machir[r.739-759 as Duke of Septimania, King of Strathclyde r.747-752, r.759-765 as King of Septimania]. Zuckerman and others confuse the father and son who are both known as Theodoric, Theuderic and Thierry. This second Jewish King was to be the Conqueror and King of Calalus in America as well the Ruler of Saxony (as King Theodoric or Deitrich of Saxony) and Bavaria (as Duke Namon of Bavaria).

It would seem that Makhir’s grandfather Ahunai of the Holy Land (Hernaut de Beauland)came to the West after his father-in-law the warrior Exilarch Heman ben Shallum was killed. Heman was the Exilarch of the Jews who had become Muslims outwardly. He was martyred around 660 AD. It is said that the Jews of Pumbedita proclaimed him the Messiah in 645 AD and he was known as the Messiah of Pumbedita.

It would seem that Heman’s father Shallum and his uncle Nehemiah were Jewish warrior princes of the royal house of King David that tried at different times to reestablish the Jewish kingdom of Mahoza. After Shallum led one such uprising against the Persians they sold him and his family into slavery to Muslims who forceably converted them. They were to use their outwardly Muslim status to champion the rights of the Jewish people both those who remained openly Jewish ruled by the family of their cousin Bostanoi and those Jews who outwardly became Muslims. Heman was known to the Muslims as Abdullah ibn Saba. Saba alludes to the Saba River where the Jewish authorities and the heads of the Acadamies fled after the fall of the Jewish kingdom of Mahoza. These Jewish scholars from the Saba river were known as the Saboraim and Heman was considered to be their protector. Heman supported the Caliph Ali as he was Jewish according to Rabbinic halakhah as Ali’s mother Fatima bint Asad was the daughter of Zahna the sister of the Jewish Exilarchs Mar Haniniah and Mar Hushiel. Thus the Caliph Ali was a close relative of Heman and the Exilarch family.

Ahunai was a descendant of Bostanoi the Exilarch and he married the daughter of Heman who was known as Imma Bilhah Bat Heman or Mabile Ermenjart (which developed into Ermengarde). Ahunai’s father Abu Aharon (Garin)was also known as Ha-Aluf (Welf/Wolf /Lupus)and seems to be the Warrior Leader of the Jews of Aquitaine in the late 7th century. His son Eudes (Mar Judah Zakkai)succeeded him as the leader of Aquitaine Jewry and to be the Ruler of Aquitaine under Merovingian overlordship. He later allied himself with Charles Martel in the fight against Ummayad Islam.

Lee Levin like Zuckerman associates Makhir with the Exilarch Natronai. However the Jewish sources speak of Machir as the son of a Babylonian Exilarch Judah. Natronai was the son of Habibai ben Natronai. This older Natronai is also known as Norbert of Aquitaine. He is the famous Natronai of legend who settled in France. His grandson Natronai was born in France and returned to Babylon to study and he eventually became the Exilarch in the 770’s. Habibi (Abu ha Nasi) married Ruth of Aquitaine (Rodolinde)the sister of Eudes (Judah Zakkai). Thus Natronai was the cousin of Makhir. The older Natronai (Norbert) ben Nehemiah married Berthe a sister of Ahunai of the Holy Land. Habibi (Abu ha Nasi) was also known as Naissi after the Jewish princely title of Nasi. Uthman or Othman of Narbonne was possibly the older brother of Natronai or possibly Natronai himself. The Franks knew Othman of Narbonne as Manuza which is a variant of his Jewish name of Manasseh (Menashshe). The name of Manasses was found later in the family descended from Makhir Theodoric King of Septimania in the 9th century. 

Aimeri de Narbonne

In the Sefer ha-Kabbalah, written by Abraham ibn Daud in 1161 it says:

“Then King Charles sent to the King of Baghdad [Caliph] requesting that he dispatch one of his Jews of the seed of royalty of the House of David. He hearkened and sent him one from there, a magnate and sage, Rabbi Makhir by name. And [Charles] settled him in Narbonne, the capital city, and planted him there, and gave him a great possession there at the time he captured it from the Ishmaelites [Arabs]. And he [Makhir] took to wife a woman from among the magnates of the town; …and the King made him a nobleman and designed, out of love for [Makhir], good statutes for the benefit of all the Jews dwelling in the city, as is written and sealed in a Latin charter; and the seal of the King therein [bears] his name Carolus; and it is in their possession at the present time. The Prince Makhir became chieftain there. He and his descendants were close with the King and all his descendants.” The King Charles mentioned here was Charles Martel not Charlemagne as claimed by others.

These Warrior Davidic Princes in the early Medieval period were prized by Jews, Christians and Muslims as their leaders because of their descent from King David. It would seem that these Davidic Princes were flexible with the outward form of their religion while maintaining their own mystical Jewish (or Jewish -Catholic)traditions in secret. Beginning in the 10th century, influenced by the Mandaen Gnostics, European society became increasingly anti-Jewish and the descendants of these families began to hide their Jewish origins and many of then embraced Catholicism. However these Davidic and Jewish origins are to be found in the genealogies, legends, and documents if one has eyes to see. It would seem in many cases that the genealogies and documents have been tampered with in order to hide these origins and to link these families to Merovingian origins rather than Davidic origins as the anti-Jewishness of European society increased. Even today there is a reluctance to acknowledge the place of these Jewish Princes in the history of Europe. The descendants of these Davidic Princes were responsible for much of the flowering of Jewish and Catholic mysticism throughout the Medieval period.

One of the biggest obstacles to accepting the Jewish identity of Theodoric has been his connection to Frankish nobles before 768. When one understands that Machir Theodoric’s family had been in southern France for four generations this removes that difficulty. While Zuckerman’s research was groundbreaking his linking of Machir to Natronai and confusing the Theodoric of 768 with his father Machir has somewhat confused those researching this dynasty. Jewish sources before Zuckerman wrote his book referred to the father of Machir as the Exilarch Judah, it was Zuckerman’s speculation that Natronai and Machir were the same person.


  ID: I72211

  • Name: Theodoric I of Autun
  • Sex: M
  • Birth: ABT 730 in Autun, Saone-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France
  • Death: 793 in Narbonne, France
  • Note:

    “My Hamelin and Ancient Heritage”
    Contact: Brent Kelly

    Name: Theodoric I DE AUTUN 1
    Sex: M
    Name: Thierry AUTON
    Name: Makhir Natronai ben HABIBI
    Birth: ABT 730 in Autun, Saone-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France
    Death: 793 in Narbonne, France

    The authors relied mainly on the theories of Jewish researcher Arthur Zuckerman, who constructed the thesis that in the eighth century, the Carolingian monarchs permitted the establishment of a Jewish prince in southern France, then known as Septimania, now referred as the Languedoc, with its capital at Narbonne. Zuckerman based his theory on an appendix to a fourteenth century work titled Sepher ha Kabbalah , according to which:

    Then King Charles sent to the King of Baghdad [Caliph] requesting that he dispatch one of his Jews of the seed of royalty of the House of David. He hearkened and sent him one from there, a magnate and sage, Rabbi Makhir by name. And [Charles] settled him in Narbonne, the capital city, and planted him there, and gave him a great possession there at the time he captured it from the Ishmaelites [Arabs]. And he [Makhir] took to wife a woman from among the magnates of the town; *…* and the King made him a nobleman and designed, out of love for [Makhir], good statutes for the benefit of all the Jews dwelling in the city, as is written and sealed in a Latin charter; and the seal of the King therein [bears] his name Carolus; and it is in their possession at the present time. The Prince Makhir became chieftain there. He and his descendants were close [inter-related] with the King and all his descendants.

    Zuckerman maintains that this Makhir would then have assumed the Christian name of Theodoric, and married Alda, daughter of Charles Martel. The authors contend however, that Theodoric is also recognized by scholars as being also of Merovingian descent. He was known as Aymery in the romances, and was the father of Guillem de Gellone, about whom there were at least six major epic poems composed before the era of the crusades, including Willehalm, by Wolfram von Eschenbach, the most famous of the mediaeval Grail chroniclers

    However, Dr. Zuckerman’s thesis has not been reviewed without some skepticism in historical journals. As Nathaniel Taylor has indicated, Zuckerman’s primary sources were late manuscripts. Nevertheless, the legend became quite common, and, true or not, could have founded the basis of the Grail legends. In 1165-66 Benjamin of Tudela, a famous Jewish traveler and chronicler, reported that in Narbonne there are “sages, magnates and princes at the head of whom is… a remnant of the House of David as stated in his family tree.” And, according to Taylor:

    …the legend of Charlemagne’s installation of the dynasty, and of associated grants of privileges, follows a literary pattern which was extremely common in this erea in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. To embellish and mythologize the past, and particularly to invent connections to Charlemagne, was a frequent subterfuge of the area’s monastic communities, but it appears also to have been true of other social groups – including the Jews. We cannot now determine the validity of the Davidic origins of the Jewish dynasty of Narbonne – or even its continuity, or the names of individual nesiim [Jewish leaders]- before the eleventh century.” (Saint William, King David, and Makhir )


    The name “Machir,” comes from Genesis 50:23, used by R. Machir, in Iraq, and Narbonne, France; 8th-9th century. Theodoric I of Septimania was received by Charlemagne and was given the title “King of the Jews”. His ancestry is possibly one of the greatest lineages of antiquity. Theodoric, claimed (or others do for him) descent not only from the Merovingian Kings, but lineal descent from King David himself. Both the king and the Pope acknowledged this pedigree. Also called Makhir Natronai ben Habibi the Resh Galuta. Exilarch of Narbonne in Septimania. Also called Rabbi Makir ha-David. Also called Dietrich. He was born circa 720 in Babylonia, Persian Empire. He was the son of Habibai beni David (David Descent Tradition). He married Alda des Francs, daughter of Carolus Martellus, dux Francorum and Chrothais , a concubine, before 740. Count in 742. “The evidence is sketchy and muddled at this distance, but a persistant account of Theodoric I has it that he was the Jewish Exilarch in Narbonne, and that he succeeded in establishing a regionally autonomous Jewish-led state around Narbonne. Makhir has been identified as being Makhir Natronai, Resh Galuta in Baghdad, ousted from that position by a cousin in 771. If true, it would be a matter of considerable interest; the Baghdad Exilarchs were reputed to be lineal descendents of the ancient Hebrew King David.What is fairly clear is that Septimania achieved an independent position in this era by some means or other, with the status of a Duchy or even possibly a Kingdom.”9 He was living between 771 and 793.7 He was sent by Haroun Al-Rashid, Calif of Baghdad to Charlemagne, King of the West at his request, who wanted to establish in Europe a middle class based on a Jewish nucleus between 786 and 793.2,10 He died before 804.

    Father: Thierry D’AUTUN b: ABT 705
    Mother: Rolinde D’AQUITAINE

    Marriage 1 Aldane of AUSTRASIA b: BEF 724 in Heristal, Liege, Belgium
    Redburh of WESSEX b: ABT 788
    Bertha D’AUTUN b: BET 750 AND 755 in Autun, Saone-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France
    St. Guilhem DE GELLONE b: 755 in Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, Midi-Pyrenees, France

    Title: Royalty for Commoners-Stuart-2nd & 3rd edition-GPC
    Author: Roderick W. Stuart
    Publication: 3rd Ed., 1998
    Call Number:
    Media: Book
    Page: pg. 326-41

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigothic kingdom in 462, when Septimania was ceded to Theodoric II, king of the Visigoths. It corresponded roughly with the modern French region of Languedoc-Roussillon.

    The name derives from part of the Roman name of the city of Béziers, Colonia Julia Septimanorum Beaterrae, which in turn alludes to the settlement of veterans of the Roman VII Legion in the city. Another possible origin of the name is a reference to the seven towns of the territory: today’s Elne, Agde, Narbonne, Lodève, Béziers, Maguelonne and Nîmes. Septimania extended to a line half-way between the Mediterranean Sea and the Garonne River in the northwest; in the east the Rhône separated it from Provence; to the south its boundary was formed by the Pyrénées.

    1 Visigoths and Franks
    2 Moorish rule
    3 Frankish reconquest
    4 Name-change controversy
    5 References in popular culture
    6 External links

    Visigoths and Franks
    507: The Frankish king Clovis defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Vouillé. Afterwards, the child-king Amalaric was carried for safety into the Iberian Peninsula. Aquitania passed into the hands of the Franks, and Septimania, with other Visigothic territories in Gaul, was ruled by Amalaric’s maternal grandfather, Theodoric the Great.
    509: Theodoric the Great created the first kingdom of Septimania, retaining its traditional capital at Narbonne. He appointed as his regent an Ostrogothic nobleman named Theudis.
    522: The young Amalaric was proclaimed king.
    526: Theodoric died. Amalaric assumed full royal power in the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania, relinquishing Provence to his cousin Athalaric. He married Clotilda, daughter of Clovis, but found, as other royal husbands of Merovingian princesses found, that the entanglement brought on him the penalty of a Frankish invasion.
    531: Amalaric lost his life in the Frankish invasion, and Arian Visigothic Septimania was the last part of Gaul to remain in Visigothic hands.
    534 Prince Theudebert son of Theuderic of Austrasia (Merovingian Frankish not Gothic) invaded Septimania in concert with Prince Gunthar son of King Chlothar. Gunthar stopped at Rodez and did not invade Septimania. Theudebert took and held the country as far as Beziers and Carbiriers from which he took the woman Deuteria as a wife. Theudebert and his half brother Childebert invaded Spain as far as Saragossa 534-538. At some point soon after this, the Visigoths regained the territory they had lost in Theudebert’s invasion.
    586 Merovingian King of Burgundy Guntram raised a force to invade Septimania as a prelude to conquest of Spain. His forces plundered from Nimes to Carcassonne (where the Frankish Count Terentiolus of Limoges was killed) but were unable to take the walled cities. Visigothic Prince Recared came in response from Spain to Narbonne and as far as Nimes and invaded nearby Frankish terrotories as far as Tolosa for plunder and to punish the Franks for the invasion (Gregory of Tours Book VIII 30-31 and 38). Frankish rebel Dukes Desiderius and Austrovald at that time in control of Tolosa raised an army and attacked Carcassonne. Desiderius was defeated and killed and Austrovald retreated with his for Tolosa (Gregory of Tours Book VIII 44).
    587 Septimania came under Catholic Rule in 587 with the conversion of Recared, who had become the King of the Visigoths in 586 with his father, Leovigild’s death. At that time Arian Bishop Athaloc and Counts Granista and Wildigern revolted against Recared in Septimania but were defeated (Gregory of Tours Book IX 15 and John of Biclar) Most of the Christian population of the province were already Catholic and Arian Christians largely converted with the death of Athaloc soon after Recared’s converstion.
    589 Merovingian King of Burgundy Guntram again tried to invade Septimania sending Austrovald to Carcassonne and Boso and Antestius to other cities. King Recared sent General Claudius who defeated the Franks and preserved the territory of Septimania under Visigothic Rule.

    Moorish rule
    The Moors, under Al-Samh ibn Malik the governor-general of al-Andalus swept up the Iberian peninsula.

    The Moors over-ran Septimania.
    720: Al-Samh set up his capital at Narbonne, which the Moors called Arbuna. He offered the still largely Arian inhabitants generous terms.
    Al-Samh quickly pacified the other cities. With Narbonne secure, and equally important, its port, for the Arab mariners were masters now of the Western Mediterranean, he swiftly subdued the largely unresisting cities, still controlled by their Visigoth counts: taking Alet and Béziers, Agde, Lodève, Maguelonne and Nîmes [1].
    721: By now Al-Samh was reinforced and ready to lay siege to Toulouse, a possession that would open up Aquitaine to him on the same terms as Septimania. But his plans were overthrown in the disastrous Battle of Toulouse (721), with immense losses, in which al-Samh was so seriously wounded that he soon died at Narbonne.
    720’s: Arab forces soundly based in Narbonne and easily resupplied by sea, struck eastwards.
    725: Arab raid on Autun.
    731: The Berber wali of Narbonne and the region of Cerdanya, Uthman ibn Naissa, called “Munuza” by the Franks, who was recently linked by marriage to duke Eudes of Aquitaine, revolted against Córdoba, and was defeated and killed.
    732 October: An Islamic invasion force made up primarily of Berber and Arab cavalry under Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi encountered Charles Martel and his veteran Frankish army between Tours and Poitiers and was defeated, and Abd er-Rahman was killed, at what the majority of historians consider the macrohistorical “Battle of Tours” that stopped the Moorish advance.

    Frankish reconquest
    732: The Franks took the territory round Toulouse. Charles Martel directed his attention to Narbonne.
    737: Charles Martel destroyed Arles, Avignon, and Nimes, but unsuccessfully attacked Narbonne, which was defended by its Goths, and Jews under the command of its governor Yusuf, ‘Abd er-Rahman’s heir. Having crushed the relief force at the River Berre, he left Narbonne isolated.
    around 747: The government of the Septimania region (and the Upper Mark, from the Pyrénées to the river Ebro) was given to Aumar ben Aumar.
    752: The Gothic counts of Nimes, Melguelh, Agde and Beziers refused allegiance to the emir at Cordoba and declared their loyalty to the Frankish king. The count of Nimes, Ansemund, had some authority over the remaining counts. The Gothic counts and the Franks then began to besiege Narbonne, where Miló was probably the count (as succesor of the count Gilbert), but Narbonne resisted.
    754: An anti-Frank reaction, led by Ermeniard, killed Ansemund, but the uprising was without success and Radulf was designated new count by the Frankish court.
    About 755: Abd al-Rahman ben Uqba replaced Aumar ben Aumar.
    759: Charles Martel’s son, Pippin the Younger bessiged Narbonne, which capitulated. The county was granted to Miló, who was the Gothic count in Muslim times.
    760: The Franks took the region of Roussillon.
    767: After the fight against Waifred of Aquitaine, Albi, Rouergue, Gévaudan, and the city of Toulouse were conquered.
    777: The wali of Barcelona, Sulayman al-Arabi, and the wali of Huesca, Abu Taur, offered their submission to Charlemagne and also the submission of Husayn, wali of Zaragoza.
    778: Charlemagne invaded the Upper Mark. Husayn refused allegiance and Charlemagne had to retreat.
    778 August 15: In the Pyrenees, the Basques defeated Charlemagne’s forces in the Roncesvalles
    Charlemagne found Septimania and the borderlands so devastated and depopulated by warfare, with the inhabitants hiding among the mountains, that he made grants of land that were some of the earliest identifiable fiefs to Visigothic and other refugees. He also founded several monasteries in Septimania, around which the people gathered for protection. Beyond Septimania to the south Charlemagne established the Hispanic Marches in the borderlands of his empire. Septimania passed to Louis, king in Aquitaine, but it was governed by Frankish margraves and then dukes (from 817) of Septimania.
    826: The Frankish noble Bernat of Septimania (also, Bernat of Gothia) became ruler of Septimania and the Hispanic Marches and ruled them until 832. His career characterized the turbulent 9th century in Septimania. His appointment as Count of Barcelona in 826 occasioned a general uprising of the Catalan lords at this intrusion of Frankish power. For suppressing Berenguer of Toulouse and the Catalans, Louis the Pious rewarded Bernat with a series of counties, which roughly delimit 9th century Septimania: Narbonne, Béziers, Agde, Magalona, Nimes and Uzés.
    843: Bernard rose against Charles the Bald.
    844: He was apprehended at Toulouse and beheaded.
    Septimania became known as Gothia after the reign of Charlemagne. It retained these two names while it was ruled by the counts of Toulouse during early part of the Middle Ages, but the southern part became more familiar as Roussillon and the west became known as Foix, and the name “Gothia” (along with the older name “Septimania”) faded away during the 10th century, except as a traditional designation as the region fractured into smaller feudal entities, which sometimes retained Carolingian titles, but lost their Carolingian character, as the culture of Septimania evolved into the culture of Languedoc.

    The name was used because the area was populated by a higher concentration of Goths than in surrounding regions. The rulers of this area, when joined with several counties, were titled the Marquesses of Gothia (and, also, the Dukes of Septimania).

    Name-change controversy
    After being elected head of the Languedoc-Roussillon region in 2004, Georges Frêche launched the idea of changing the name of the region to the ancient name of Septimania, or Septimanie in French. The Regional Council started to use this name widely, without a mandate from the people. There was stauch opposition from some citizens, notably from Catalanists in Roussillon (“North Catalonia”) who felt that the new name culturally excluded them from the region.

    Those in favour of the change say that the modern region of Languedoc-Roussillon corresponds to neither ancient Languedoc or ancient Roussillon exactly, and that it is a clunky name.

    Those against the change say that the modern region does not correspond exactly to ancient Septimania, and that it sounds like “septicaemia”. They call supporters “septimaniacs”.

    In September 2005, this opposition led to Georges Frêche giving up his idea, and cutting almost all use of the name. He declared that he still believed in it but could not go ahead without a mandate.

    References in popular culture
    The area of Septimania started showing up in popular culture after the publication of the 1982 pseudohistorical book Holy Blood Holy Grail and the later fame around the related 2003 bestselling novel, The Da Vinci Code. This resulted in Septimania being mentioned on television “debunking” documentaries such as the 2006 Da Vinci Declassified on The Learning Channel.

    In Holy Blood Holy Grail, the claim was made that as part of the territory disputes around Septimania in the 8th century, a small Jewish kingdom was established by Charles Martel’s son Pippin the Younger, as a way of tipping the power balance in the embattled city of Narbonne. According to the book, a pact was made to this effect in 759, and when the Jewish population rose up in 768 and evicted the Muslim controllers, Pippin kept his part of the bargain and established an official Jewish principality. It was to owe allegiance to Pippin (called “Pepin” in the book), but otherwise maintain independence. The installed ruler was allegedly a man named Aymery, who, when received into the ranks of Frankish nobility, took the name Theodoric, or Thierry. The man’s origin was uncertain, with the book claiming that he was possibly of Merovingian descent, or may have been a native of Baghdad who was descended from Babylonian Jews during the Babylonian captivity. The Merovingian claim was important to the book, since the actual Merovingian dynasty had been destroyed in 679, when King Dagobert II had been assassinated, though the book claimed that his son had been rescued and transported to the home of his mother, in the Septimania region, in the village that is now known as Rennes-le-Chateau.

    The book further stated that Theodoric was recognized by both Pepin and the caliph of Baghdad as “the seed of the royal house of David”, and married a woman named Alda, who was an aunt to Charlemagne. The region was endowed with estates “held in freehold from the Carolingian monarchs” and was granted tracts of Church land as well, against the wishes of Pope Stephen III. Theodoric ruled the principality, and this crown was later given to his son, William of Gellone, whose bloodline later produced the Dukes of Aquitaine.

    The reason for the book’s claims, was an attempt to prove a blood link between the House of David and Frankish royalty, specifically the Merovingians, as a way of showing that the Merovingians were the descendants of a bloodline starting with the child of Jesus and Mary Magdalene. However, it was later shown that many of the medieval documents which the book’s authors had relied upon for research, were actually forgeries which had been produced as part of the Priory of Sion hoax.

    External links
    Archibald R. Lewis, “The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society, 718-1050″
    Ian Meadows, “The Arabs in Occitania”

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Federal Reserve Makes Money and Debt Out of Thin Air

What would happen if the Federal Reserve was shut down permanently?  That is a question that CNBC asked recently, but unfortunately most Americans don’t really think about the Fed much. Most Americans are content with believing that the Federal Reserve is just another stuffy government agency that sets our interest rates and that is watching out for the best interests of the American people.  But that is not the case at all.  The truth is that the Federal Reserve is a private banking cartel that has been designed to systematically destroy the value of our currency, drain the wealth of the American public and enslave the federal government to perpetually expanding debt.  During this election year, the economy is the number one issue that voters are concerned about.  But instead of endlessly blaming both political parties, the truth is that most of the blame should be placed at the feet of the Federal Reserve.  The Federal Reserve has more power over the performance of the U.S. economy than anyone else does.  The Federal Reserve controls the money supply, the Federal Reserve sets the interest rates and the Federal Reserve hands out bailouts to the big banks that absolutely dwarf anything that Congress ever did.  If the American people are ever going to learn what is really going on with our economy, then it is absolutely imperative that they get educated about the Federal Reserve.

The following are 10 things that every American should know about the Federal Reserve….

#1 The Federal Reserve System Is A Privately Owned Banking Cartel

The Federal Reserve is not a government agency.

The truth is that it is a privately owned central bank.  It is owned by the banks that are members of the Federal Reserve system.  We do not know how much of the system each bank owns, because that has never been disclosed to the American people.

The Federal Reserve openly admits that it is privately owned.  When it was defending itself against a Bloomberg request for information under the Freedom of Information Act, the Federal Reserve stated unequivocally in court that it was “not an agency” of the federal government and therefore not subject to the Freedom of Information Act.

In fact, if you want to find out that the Federal Reserve system is owned by the member banks, all you have to do is go to the Federal Reserve website….

The twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks, which were established by Congress as the operating arms of the nation’s central banking system, are organized much like private corporations–possibly leading to some confusion about “ownership.” For example, the Reserve Banks issue shares of stock to member banks. However, owning Reserve Bank stock is quite different from owning stock in a private company. The Reserve Banks are not operated for profit, and ownership of a certain amount of stock is, by law, a condition of membership in the System. The stock may not be sold, traded, or pledged as security for a loan; dividends are, by law, 6 percent per year.

Foreign governments and foreign banks do own significant ownership interests in the member banks that own the Federal Reserve system.  So it would be accurate to say that the Federal Reserve is partially foreign-owned.

But until the exact ownership shares of the Federal Reserve are revealed, we will never know to what extent the Fed is foreign-owned.

#2 The Federal Reserve System Is A Perpetual Debt Machine

As long as the Federal Reserve System exists, U.S. government debt will continue to go up and up and up.

This runs contrary to the conventional wisdom that Democrats and Republicans would have us believe, but unfortunately it is true.

The way our system works, whenever more money is created more debt is created as well.

For example, whenever the U.S. government wants to spend more money than it takes in (which happens constantly), it has to go ask the Federal Reserve for it.  The federal government gives U.S. Treasury bonds to the Federal Reserve, and the Federal Reserve gives the U.S. government “Federal Reserve Notes” in return.  Usually this is just done electronically.

So where does the Federal Reserve get the Federal Reserve Notes?

It just creates them out of thin air.

Wouldn’t you like to be able to create money out of thin air?

Instead of issuing money directly, the U.S. government lets the Federal Reserve create it out of thin air and then the U.S. government borrows it.

Talk about stupid.

When this new debt is created, the amount of interest that the U.S. government will eventually pay on that debt is not also created.

So where will that money come from?

Well, eventually the U.S. government will have to go back to the Federal Reserve to get even more money to finance the ever expanding debt that it has gotten itself trapped into.

It is a debt spiral that is designed to go on perpetually.

You see, the reality is that the money supply is designed to constantly expand under the Federal Reserve system.  That is why we have all become accustomed to thinking of inflation as “normal”.

So what does the Federal Reserve do with the U.S. Treasury bonds that it gets from the U.S. government?

Well, it sells them off to others.  There are lots of people out there that have made a ton of money by holding U.S. government debt.

In fiscal 2011, the U.S. government paid out 454 billion dollars just in interest on the national debt.

That is 454 billion dollars that was taken out of our pockets and put into the pockets of wealthy individuals and foreign governments around the globe.

The truth is that our current debt-based monetary system was designed by greedy bankers that wanted to make enormous profits by using the Federal Reserve as a tool to create money out of thin air and lend it to the U.S. government at interest.

And that plan is working quite well.

Most Americans today don’t understand how any of this works, but many prominent Americans in the past did understand it.

For example, Thomas Edison was once quoted in the New York Times as saying the following….

That is to say, under the old way any time we wish to add to the national wealth we are compelled to add to the national debt.

Now, that is what Henry Ford wants to prevent. He thinks it is stupid, and so do I, that for the loan of $30,000,000 of their own money the people of the United States should be compelled to pay $66,000,000 — that is what it amounts to, with interest. People who will not turn a shovelful of dirt nor contribute a pound of material will collect more money from the United States than will the people who supply the material and do the work. That is the terrible thing about interest. In all our great bond issues the interest is always greater than the principal. All of the great public works cost more than twice the actual cost, on that account. Under the present system of doing business we simply add 120 to 150 per cent, to the stated cost.

But here is the point: If our nation can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill. The element that makes the bond good makes the bill good.

We should have listened to men like Edison and Ford.

But we didn’t.

And so we pay the price.

On July 1, 1914 (a few months after the Fed was created) the U.S. national debt was 2.9 billion dollars.

Today, it is more than more than 5000 times larger.

Yes, the perpetual debt machine is working quite well, and most Americans do not even realize what is happening.

#3 The Federal Reserve Has Destroyed More Than 96% Of The Value Of The U.S. Dollar

Did you know that the U.S. dollar has lost 96.2 percent of its value since 1900?  Of course almost all of that decline has happened since the Federal Reserve was created in 1913.

Because the money supply is designed to expand constantly, it is guaranteed that all of our dollars will constantly lose value.

Inflation is a “hidden tax” that continually robs us all of our wealth.  The Federal Reserve always says that it is “committed” to controlling inflation, but that never seems to work out so well.

And current Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke says that it is actually a good thing to have a little bit of inflation.  He plans to try to keep the inflation rate at about 2 percent in the coming years.

So what is so bad about 2 percent?  That doesn’t sound so bad, does it?

Well, just consider the following excerpt from a recent Forbes article….

The Federal Reserve Open Market Committee (FOMC) has made it official:  After its latest two day meeting, it announced its goal to devalue the dollar by 33% over the next 20 years.  The debauch of the dollar will be even greater if the Fed exceeds its goal of a 2 percent per year increase in the price level.

#4 The Federal Reserve Can Bail Out Whoever It Wants To With No Accountability

The American people got so upset about the bailouts that Congress gave to the Wall Street banks and to the big automakers, but did you know that the biggest bailouts of all were given out by the Federal Reserve?

Thanks to a very limited audit of the Federal Reserve that Congress approved a while back, we learned that the Fed made trillions of dollars in secret bailout loans to the big Wall Street banks during the last financial crisis.  They even secretly loaned out hundreds of billions of dollars to foreign banks.

According to the results of the limited Fed audit mentioned above, a total of $16.1 trillion in secret loans were made by the Federal Reserve between December 1, 2007 and July 21, 2010.

The following is a list of loan recipients that was taken directly from page 131 of the audit report….

Citigroup – $2.513 trillion
Morgan Stanley – $2.041 trillion
Merrill Lynch – $1.949 trillion
Bank of America – $1.344 trillion
Barclays PLC – $868 billion
Bear Sterns – $853 billion
Goldman Sachs – $814 billion
Royal Bank of Scotland – $541 billion
JP Morgan Chase – $391 billion
Deutsche Bank – $354 billion
UBS – $287 billion
Credit Suisse – $262 billion
Lehman Brothers – $183 billion
Bank of Scotland – $181 billion
BNP Paribas – $175 billion
Wells Fargo – $159 billion
Dexia – $159 billion
Wachovia – $142 billion
Dresdner Bank – $135 billion
Societe Generale – $124 billion
“All Other Borrowers” – $2.639 trillion

So why haven’t we heard more about this?

This is scandalous.

In addition, it turns out that the Fed paid enormous sums of money to the big Wall Street banks to help “administer” these nearly interest-free loans….

Not only did the Federal Reserve give 16.1 trillion dollars in nearly interest-free loans to the “too big to fail” banks, the Fed also paid them over 600 million dollars to help run the emergency lending program.  According to the GAO, the Federal Reserve shelled out an astounding $659.4 million in “fees” to the very financial institutions which caused the financial crisis in the first place.

Does reading that make you angry?

It should.

#5 The Federal Reserve Is Paying Banks Not To Lend Money

Did you know that the Federal Reserve is actually paying banks not to make loans?

It is true.

Section 128 of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 allows the Federal Reserve to pay interest on “excess reserves” that U.S. banks park at the Fed.

So the banks can just send their cash to the Fed and watch the money come rolling in risk-free.

So are many banks taking advantage of this?

You tell me.  Just check out the chart below.  The amount of “excess reserves” parked at the Fed has gone from nearly nothing to about 1.5 trillion dollars since 2008….

But shouldn’t the banks be lending the money to us so that we can start businesses and buy homes?

You would think that is how it is supposed to work.

Unfortunately, the Federal Reserve is not working for us.

The Federal Reserve is working for the big banks.

Sadly, most Americans have no idea what is going on.

Another example of this is the government debt carry trade.

Here is how it works.  The Federal Reserve lends gigantic piles of nearly interest-free cash to the big Wall Street banks, and in turn those banks use the money to buy up huge amounts of government debt.  Since the return on government debt is higher, the banks are able to make large profits very easily and with very little risk.

This scam was also explained in a recent article in the Guardian….

Consider this: we pretend that banks are private businesses that should be allowed to run their own affairs. But they are the biggest scroungers of public money of our time. Banks are lent vast sums of money by central banks at near-zero interest. They lend that money to us or back to the government at higher rates and rake in the difference by the billion. They don’t even have to make clever investments to make huge profits.

That is a pretty good little scam they have got going, wouldn’t you say?

#6 The Federal Reserve Creates Artificial Economic Bubbles That Are Extremely Damaging

By allowing a centralized authority such as the Federal Reserve to dictate interest rates, it creates an environment where financial bubbles can be created very easily.

Over the past several decades, we have seen bubble after bubble.  Most of these have been the result of the Federal Reserve keeping interest rates artificially low.  If the free market had been setting interest rates all this time, things would have never gotten so far out of hand.

For example, the housing crash would have never been so horrific if the Federal Reserve had not created such ideal conditions for a housing bubble in the first place.  But we allow the Fed to continue to make the same mistakes.

Right now, the Federal Reserve continues to set interest rates much, much lower than they should be.  This is causing a tremendous misallocation of economic resources, and there will be massive consequences for that down the line.

#7 The Federal Reserve System Is Dominated By The Big Wall Street Banks

Even since it was created, the Federal Reserve system has been dominated by the big Wall Street banks.

The following is from a previous article that I did about the Fed….

The New York representative is the only permanent member of the Federal Open Market Committee, while other regional banks rotate in 2 and 3 year intervals.  The former head of the New York Fed, Timothy Geithner, is now U.S. Treasury Secretary.  The truth is that the Federal Reserve Bank of New York has always been the most important of the regional Fed banks by far, and in turn the Federal Reserve Bank of New York has always been dominated by Wall Street and the major New York banks.

#8 It Is Not An Accident That We Saw The Personal Income Tax And The Federal Reserve System Both Come Into Existence In 1913

On February 3rd, 1913 the 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified.  Later that year, the United States Revenue Act of 1913 imposed a personal income tax on the American people and we have had one ever since.

Without a personal income tax, it is hard to have a central bank.  It takes a lot of money to finance all of the government debt that a central banking system creates.

It is no accident that the 16th Amendment was ratified in 1913 and the Federal Reserve system was also created in 1913.

They have a symbiotic relationship and they are designed to work together.

We could fill Congress with people that are committed to ending this oppressive system, but so far we have chosen not to do that.

So our children and our grandchildren will face a lifetime of debt slavery because of us.

I am sure they will be thankful for that.

#9 The Current Federal Reserve Chairman, Ben Bernanke, Has A Nightmarish Track Record Of Incompetence

The mainstream media portrays Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke as a brilliant economist, but is that really the case?

Let’s go to the videotape.

The following is an extended excerpt from an article that I published previously….


In 2005, Bernanke said that we shouldn’t worry because housing prices had never declined on a nationwide basis before and he said that he believed that the U.S. would continue to experience close to “full employment”….

“We’ve never had a decline in house prices on a nationwide basis. So, what I think what is more likely is that house prices will slow, maybe stabilize, might slow consumption spending a bit. I don’t think it’s gonna drive the economy too far from its full employment path, though.”

In 2005, Bernanke also said that he believed that derivatives were perfectly safe and posed no danger to financial markets….

“With respect to their safety, derivatives, for the most part, are traded among very sophisticated financial institutions and individuals who have considerable incentive to understand them and to use them properly.”

In 2006, Bernanke said that housing prices would probably keep rising….

“Housing markets are cooling a bit. Our expectation is that the decline in activity or the slowing in activity will be moderate, that house prices will probably continue to rise.”

In 2007, Bernanke insisted that there was not a problem with subprime mortgages….

“At this juncture, however, the impact on the broader economy and financial markets of the problems in the subprime market seems likely to be contained. In particular, mortgages to prime borrowers and fixed-rate mortgages to all classes of borrowers continue to perform well, with low rates of delinquency.”

In 2008, Bernanke said that a recession was not coming….

“The Federal Reserve is not currently forecasting a recession.”

A few months before Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac collapsed, Bernanke insisted that they were totally secure….

“The GSEs are adequately capitalized. They are in no danger of failing.”

For many more examples that demonstrate the absolutely nightmarish track record of Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke, please see the following articles….

*”Say What? 30 Ben Bernanke Quotes That Are So Stupid That You Won’t Know Whether To Laugh Or Cry

*”Is Ben Bernanke A Liar, A Lunatic Or Is He Just Completely And Totally Incompetent?

But after being wrong over and over and over, Barack Obama still nominated Ben Bernanke for another term as Chairman of the Fed.


#10 The Federal Reserve Has Become Way Too Powerful

The Federal Reserve is the most undemocratic institution in America.

The Federal Reserve has become so powerful that it is now known as “the fourth branch of government”, but there are less checks and balances on the Fed than there are on the other three branches.

The Federal Reserve runs the U.S. economy but it is not accountable to the American people.  We can’t vote those that run the Fed out of office if we do not like what they do.

Yes, the president appoints those that run the Fed, but he also knows that if he does not tread lightly he won’t get the money from the big Wall Street banks that he needs for his next election.

Thankfully, there are a few members of Congress that are complaining about how much power the Fed has.  For example, Ron Paul once told MSNBC that he believes that the Federal Reserve is now actually more powerful than Congress…..

“The regulations should be on the Federal Reserve. We should have transparency of the Federal Reserve. They can create trillions of dollars to bail out their friends, and we don’t even have any transparency of this. They’re more powerful than the Congress.”

As members of Congress such as Ron Paul have started to shed some light on the activities of the Federal Reserve, that has caused many in the mainstream media to come to the defense of the Fed.

For example, a recent CNBC article entitled “If The Federal Reserve Is Abolished, What Then?” makes it sound like there is absolutely no other rational alternative to having the Federal Reserve run our economy.

But this is not what our founders intended.

The founders did not intend for a private banking cartel to issue our money and set our interest rates for us.

According to Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution, the U.S. Congress has been given the responsibility to “coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures”.

So why is the Federal Reserve doing it?

But the CNBC article mentioned above makes it sound like the sky would fall if control of the currency was handed back over to the American people.

At one point, the article asks the following question….

“How would the U.S. economy then function? Something has to take its place, right?”

No, the truth is that we don’t need anyone to “manage” our economy.

The U.S. Treasury could be in charge of issuing our currency and the free market could set our interest rates.

We don’t need to have a centrally-planned economy.

We aren’t China.

And it goes against everything that our founders believed to be running up so much government debt.

For example, Thomas Jefferson once declared that if he could add just one more amendment to the U.S. Constitution it would be a ban on all government borrowing….

I wish it were possible to obtain a single amendment to our Constitution. I would be willing to depend on that alone for the reduction of the administration of our government to the genuine principles of its Constitution; I mean an additional article, taking from the federal government the power of borrowing.

Oh, how things would have been different if we had only listened to Thomas Jefferson.

Please share this article with as many people as you can.  These are things that every American should know about the Federal Reserve, and we need to educate the American people about the Fed while there is still time.

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God test for me

  1. I believe there is a God (or conscious creator force).

Strongly agree.
Neither agree nor disagree.
Strongly disagree.

2. I believe the Universe was created by a God or conscious creator being of some kind.

Strongly agree.
Neither agree nor disagree.
Strongly disagree.

3. I believe I am the child of (or creation of) a conscious creator or intelligence.

Strongly agree.
Neither agree nor disagree.
Strongly disagree.

4. There are some things in this world which should not be questioned (whether that is science, scripture, or your mom).

Strongly agree.
Neither agree nor disagree.
Strongly disagree.

5. How certain are you of your belief system?

Completely certain / would not change.
Mostly certain / could potentially change.
Somewhat certain / open to change.
Not very certain / very open to change.
Not at all certain / glad to change.

6. The world would be a better place without religion.

Strongly agree.
Neither agree nor disagree.
Strongly disagree.

7. I understand that my beliefs are not best for everyone.

Strongly agree.

Neither agree nor disagree.
Strongly disagree.

8. It is impossible to know anything for certain.

Strongly agree.
Neither agree nor disagree.
Strongly disagree.

9. There are scriptures/holy documents/words of prophets which have revealed a higher power to us.

Absolutely yes.
No.  I do not believe scriptures accurately reveal the higher power I believe in.
No.  I do not believe in a higher power.
Absolutely not.  There is no God or scriptures to reflect him.

10. How certain are you of your belief (or lack thereof) in the scriptures/holy documents/words of the prophets?

90% to 100% certain
65% to 90% certain
45% to 65% certain
25% to 45% certain
0% to 25% certain

11. All things considered, religion is a good thing in today’s world.

Strongly agree.
Neither agree nor disagree.
Strongly disagree.

12. In five years, I feel that my beliefs will be . . .

Exactly the same as they are now.
Mostly the same.
Don’t know / not certain.
Quite different.
Incredibly different.

13. I believe that humans have immortal souls (energy, consciousness, or other aspects which will not die when this body dies).

Strongly agree.
Neither agree nor disagree.
Strongly disagree

14. I believe that you can get a lot out of scriptures/religious texts if you view them as symbolic rather than literal.

Strongly agree.
Neither agree nor disagree.
Strongly disagree.

15. I can feel the presence or influence of God (or a higher power) when attending religious ceremonies.

Strongly agree.
Neither Agree nor Disagree / Uncertain
Strongly disagree.

16. I believe in the afterlife I will . . .

Go to a heaven/promised afterlife.
Be reincarnated based on my karma.
Be reincarnated, not based on karma.
Cease to exist.
I just don’t know / I’ll cross that bridge when I come to it.

17. I am this percent certain in my beliefs on the afterlife.

90% to 100%
70% to 90%
40% to 70%
20% to 40%
0% to 20%

18. I believe there have been prophets or seers who could hear or communicate with a higher power directly.

Strongly agree.
Neither Agree nor Disagree.
Strongly Disagree

19. How certain are you on your belief (or lack of belief) of prophets?

Completely certain.
Somewhat certain.
Neither certain nor uncertain.
Somewhat uncertain.
Very uncertain.

20. The world would be a better place if everyone shared my beliefs.

Strongly agree
Neither agree nor disagree / uncertain
Strongly disagree

21. People would be happier if they accepted God (or another divine force or consciousness) into their lives.

Not necessarily / depends on the person
Probably not.
Absolutely not!

22. The best answers to life’s questions come through science and reason, not divine prophecy or scriptural reference.

Strongly agree.
Neither agree nor disagree / uncertain.
Strongly disagree.

23. I believe that people will be punished by a higher power for the things they have done wrong, and rewarded for the things they have done right.

Strongly agree.
Neither agree nor disagree / uncertain.
Strongly disagree.

24. A friend of yours who shares your current belief system (whatever that is) comes to you and says that are considering an opposing belief system very seriously.  You would . . .

Encourage them to explore the beliefs that felt best to them.
Not interfere / not worry about the change.
Express disapproval, but not interfere.
Try to convince them to remain with your belief system.

25. Same question as above.  This time, it’s your spouse.  You would . . .

Encourage them to explore the beliefs that felt best to them.
Not interfere / not worry about the change.
Express disapproval, but not interfere.
Try to convince them to remain with your belief system.  Accept them if they do not.
Try to convince them to remain with your belief system.  Leave them if they do not.

26. A friend of a different belief system than yours invites you to a religious ceremony for their religion.  You would . . .

Gladly accompany them.  It’s always fun to learn!
Accompany them.  They are your friend, after all.
Not accompany them, apologetically.  You’re just not comfortable with it.
Not accompany them, forcefully.  You don’t need friends trying to convert you.

27. There is a news report which states that there is now scientific evidence which reveals a higher power.  You are . . .

Not surprised.  You knew all along, after all.
Not all that surprised.  Kind of neat to find out, actually.
Shocked.  There’s a God, eh?  This changes things. . . .
Flabbergasted.  They let this filth on the NEWS?!
Intrigued.  It’s always interesting to find out more about the Universe.

28. You start hearing a voice which tells you it is God and has a task for you.  You . . .

Listen and obey!
Listen . . . very cautiously.
Ignore the voice.
Immediately check yourself into an insane asylum.

29. When it comes to people you would date, you prefer . . .

People who devoutly follow the same religion that I do.
It doesn’t matter, so long as they’re NOT highly religious or pushy.
Prefer people of the same belief system, but willing to date others.
People who are die-hard atheists.

30. If I could convince a friend to join my belief system, I would do so without hesitation.

Strongly agree.
Neither agree nor disagree / uncertain.
Strongly disagree.

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Armageddon is a Tel

A tell, or tel is a type of archaeological mound created by human occupation and abandonment of a geographical site over many centuries. A classic tell looks like a low, truncated cone with a flat top and sloping sides. The term is mainly used of sites in the Middle East, where it often forms part of the local place name.

A tell in poker is a change in a player’s behavior or demeanor that is claimed by some to give clues to that player’s assessment of their hand. A player gains an advantage if they observe and understand the meaning of another player’s tell, particularly if the tell is unconscious and reliable. Sometimes a player may fake a tell, hoping to induce their opponents to make poor judgments in response to the false tell. More often, people try to avoid giving out a tell, by maintaining a poker face regardless of how strong or weak their hand is.

Tel (mound) Megiddo, known as Tel-el-Mutesellim (Hill of the Ruler) has been identified as one of the most important cities of biblical times. Located on a hill overlooking the fertile Jezreel Valley, Megiddo was of great strategic importance, as it commanded the eastern approaches of Nahal Iron (nahal, a dry river bed), part of the international highway which led from Egypt, along the coastal plain to the Jezreel Valley, and thence to Damascus and Mesopotamia (the highway became known later as Via Maris, Way of the Sea). Numerous battles fought for control of the city are recorded in ancient sources; in the New Testament (Revelations 16:16), Armageddon (believed by some to be a corruption of Har Megiddo – the hill of Megiddo) is named as the site of the “Battle of the End of Days”.

One of the largest city mounds in Israel (covering an area of about 15 acres) and rich in archeological finds, Tel Megiddo is an important site for the study of the material culture of biblical times. A total of 20 cities were built at Megiddo, one above the other, over the course of 5,000 years of continuous occupation; from the time of the first settlement at the end of the 6th millennium BCE to its abandonment in the 5th century BCE.

Several expeditions have excavated at Megiddo since the beginning of the 20th century. The most important excavations were conducted by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago between the years 1925 and 1939. All four of the uppermost cities of the tel, dating to the first half of the 1st millennium BCE, were excavated by this expedition. Several sections excavated to bedrock exposed the remains of the earliest city.

The finds corroborate written evidence concerning the importance of Megiddo, first as a royal Canaanite city, then as an Egyptian stronghold and administrative center, later as a “chariot city” of the kings of Israel, and finally as the controlling city of Assyrian and Persian provinces.

Excavations at Megiddo were renewed in 1994, with the aim of clarifying the tel’s stratigraphy and chronology and of obtaining further information about architectural and cultural remains at the site.

A village had been established on the hill of Megiddo at the end of the 6th millennium BCE, but the first fortified urban settlement, remains of which were uncovered on bedrock in the eastern part of the tel, dates from the beginning of the 3rd millennium BCE. Within its walls was an elongated rectangular temple, with an altar opposite its entrance; it had a low ceiling, supported by wooden columns placed on stone bases. The renewed excavations have exposed several long, parallel stone walls, each 4 m. thick, the lanes between them filled with the bones of sacrificed animals.

Over the next 2000 years, a series of Canaanite temples were built, one on top of the other, on the site of this ancient temple.

At the end of the 3rd millennium BCE, a circular bama (altar) of fieldstones, 8.5 m. in diameter and 1.5 m high, was built. Seven steps led to its top, upon which sacrifices were offered. This is an excellent example of the cultic bamot (altars) frequently mentioned in the Bible. (e.g., I Samuel 9:12-15) Then, at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE, a complex of three identical temples was added at the back of the bama, forming an impressive Canaanite cultic precinct. Each of these megaron-type temples consisted of a rectangular room with a bama at its back and an open courtyard at its façade, where a pair of round stone bases indicate pillars. Towards the end of the 2nd millennium BCE, a new Canaanite temple was built on the ruins of its predecessors; it had especially thick walls and included a small cultic chamber with two towers protecting its façade.

From the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE, Megiddo was an important military center. The city was surrounded by mighty stone fortifications, strengthened by earthen ramparts with glacis (a sloped hard and smooth coating). The area within the walls was carefully planned and divided into several clearly defined quarters: the royal quarters containing the palaces; the administrative quarter; and the residential quarters. This plan did not significantly change until the 12th century BCE.

Toward the middle of the 2nd millennium, a new gate of unusually large dimensions, built of large ashlars on trimmed basalt foundations, was built in the city’s northern wall. It included two pairs of chambers with a broad passage between them, providing convenient access to chariots. Next to the gate in the eastern wall stood the palace of the Canaanite kings of Megiddo. This was a very large and splendid palace, its rooms built around a courtyard. Gold jewelry and ivories found in the palace treasury provide evidence of the wealth of the kings of Megiddo and their political and commercial links with neighboring lands and cultures.

Megiddo is mentioned many times in Egyptian royal inscriptions from the 15th to the 13th centuries BCE. They attest to the city’s importance as the center of Egyptian administration in Canaan and as a logistical base on the road north. Inscriptions in the temple of the god Amon at Karnak (in Upper Egypt) describe the first military campaign of Thutmose III in Canaan, at the beginning of the 15th century BCE. According to this description, the Egyptian army crossed the hills of Manasseh and then advanced via Nahal Iron to the Jezreel Valley.

Six letters found in the archives of the Egyptian kings at el-Amarna, dating to the 14th century BCE, were sent by the king of Megiddo to his overlords, the kings of Egypt. In these letters, Biridiya, king of Megiddo, describes the growing threat to his city at the hands of Labayu (king of Shechem) and pleads for help:

To the king, my lord, and my Sun-god, say: Thus Biridiya, the faithful servant of the king. At the two feet of the king, my lord, and my Sun-god, seven and seven times I fall. Let the king know that ever since the archers returned [to Egypt], Labayu has carried on hostilities against me, and we are not able to pluck the wool, and we are not able to go outside the gate in the presence of Labayu, since he learned that thou hast not given archers; and now his face is set to take Megiddo, but let the king protect the city, lest Labayu seize it. Verily, there is no other purpose in Labayu. He seeks to destroy Megiddo.

With the decline of Egyptian control in the 12th and 11th centuries BCE, struggles for power took place among the Canaanites, Philistines and Israelites which left their mark upon the remains at Megiddo. The city was finally conquered by King David, who established it as an important regional center of his kingdom.

Megiddo reached its peak under King Solomon in the 10th century BCE. He rebuilt it as a royal city, administering the northern part of the kingdom. The building of Jerusalem, the capital, and of Hatzor, Megiddo and Gezer, as part of centralized urban planning, is recounted in the Bible:

And this is the reason of the levy which king Solomon raised; for to build the house of the Lord, and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, and Hatzor, and Megiddo, and Gezer. (I Kings 9:15)

Architectural features characteristic of the royal centers of the monarchic period have been found in all three cities. In the Megiddo excavations, such elements were encountered in the palaces, buildings, fortifications, administrative buildings, storehouses, stables and the water system.

During the reign of Solomon, Megiddo was surrounded by a sturdy casemate wall (two parallel walls with partitions between them, creating rooms). The casemates served as barracks for soldiers and for storage of equipment. A new city gate was constructed on the remains of the Canaanite gate in the northern part of wall. It included three sets of chambers with a passage between them; for additional security, towers and an outer gate were added outside this gate.

Within the city, large palaces were built, and next to them identically planned administrative buildings: a series of rooms around an open central courtyard. These were very well built, with extensive use of large ashlars, the thick walls supporting a second story. Atop the doorposts were Proto-Aeolic stone capitals, with stylized volutes.

Megiddo was destroyed in the military campaign of Pharaoh Shishak in 926 BCE, and restored during the reign of Ahab, king of Israel (ca. 874 – 852 BCE) who made it a royal “chariot city.” The new city’s walls were 3.5 m. thick, constructed with offsets and insets and incorporating the Solomonic city gate. Noteworthy among the structures from the period of Ahab are several large, identical buildings, covering large areas of the city. Some archeologists believe they were storehouses, barracks or market-places, but most researchers regard them as stables.

Based on the biblical account, the stables were first dated to the reign of Solomon, but new evidence has established their date as early 9th century BCE, in the reign of King Ahab. The southern stable complex is divided into several compartments, each subdivided into three long, parallel halls: the outer halls for stalls, the corridors between them for use by the stable hands. The ceiling of the stables was supported by large, square stone pillars. Massive stone troughs stood in the stables, as well as perforated stones for tying the horses. In the middle of a large courtyard, surrounded by a stone wall, was a watering pool. It is estimated that Megiddo’s stables could have accommodated 450 horses; the adjacent structures undoubtedly housed dozens of battle chariots – an impressive quantity in terms of the period.

To safeguard the city’s water supply in times of siege, a subterranean water system was hewn in the rock in the western part of the city, which made it possible to reach the spring at the foot of the hill outside the walls without being seen by the enemy. This project required considerable engineering ingenuity and an enormous amount of hard labor. The water system consists of a square, 25 m.-deep vertical shaft and an 80 m.-long horizontal tunnel. In order to hide the source of water from the enemy and to protect the users of the water system, a particularly thick wall, camouflaged by a covering of earth, was constructed at the entrance to the cave from which the spring emanates, blocking access from the outside.

Megiddo continued to serve as the seat of the royal governor during the reign of Jeroboam II, king of Israel. This is attested to by a seal, found in excavations at the beginning of the 20th century, bearing the inscription “to Shema, servant of Jeroboam.” During the rebellion of Jehu, Ahaziah, king of Judah, fled to Megiddo and died there of his wounds. (II Kings 9: 27)

Megiddo was apparently conquered and destroyed in 732 BCE, during the campaign of Tiglath Pilesser III, king of Assyria, against the Kingdom of Israel. (II Kings 15: 29)

The Assyrians made Megiddo the royal city of their province in the north of the conquered kingdom of Israel and rebuilt it in their finest architectural tradition. An orthogonal grid of streets divided the city into quarters. In the south of the city, a round, subterranean stone-lined silo, 11 m. in diameter, with two narrow flights of stairs along its sides, was found. At the end of the 7th century, apparently during the reign of Josiah, king of Judah, a rectangular fortress was constructed on top of the eastern side of the tel, but it remained in use only until Josiah’s fall in 609 BCE, when it was destroyed.

In his days Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt, went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and king Josiah went against him; and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him. (II Kings 23: 29)

From then on, Megiddo fell into decline; it was finally abandoned during the Persian rule, in the 5th century BCE.

The Battle of Marj Dābiq was a decisive military clash in Middle Eastern history, fought on 24 August 1516, near the town of Dabiq, 44 km north of Aleppo, Syria. The battle was part of the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17) between the Ottoman Empire and the Mamluk Sultanate, which ended ultimately in an Ottoman victory, the conquest of most of the Middle East by the Ottoman Empire, and the end of the Mamluk Sultanate. The Ottoman Empire’s victory in this battle gave it control of the entire region of Syria.

Sahih Muslim also gives this account by Abu Hurayrah: “Allah’s Apostle (pboh) said: The Last Hour will not come until the Romans land at al-Amiq or in Dabiq. An army consisting of the best soldiers of the people on Earth at that time will come from Medina to oppose them. When they arrange themselves in ranks, the Romans will say: Do not stand between us and those Muslims who took prisoners from among us. Let us fight them. The Muslims will say: Nay, by Allah, we shall never turn aside from you and from our brethren so that you may fight them. They will then fight and a third of the army, whom Allah will never forgive, will run away. A third, which will be constituted of excellent martyrs in Allah’s eyes, would be killed. The third who will never be put on trial will win and they will be the conquerors of Constantinople. As they are busy in distributing the spoils of war after hanging their swords by the olive trees, Satan will cry: The Dajjal has taken your place among your families. They will then come out, but it will be of no avail. When they reach Syria, he will come out while they are still preparing themselves for battle, drawing up the ranks. Certainly, the time of prayer will come and then Isa ibn Maryam (pboh) will descend and lead them in prayer. When the enemy of Allah sees him, it will disappear just as salt dissolves in water, and if Isa were not to confront them at all, even then it would dissolve completely. Allah would kill them by his hand and he would show them their blood on Isa’s lance.” (Hadith 6924)

The Romans are no more, except those that live in Rome. Constantinople is no more, conquered by Istanbul. Syria lays in ruins and the Imam Mahdi (“The Guided One”) will dwell in the Dome. It is prophesied that Isa ibn Maryam (pboh) will come to Islam in the Qur’an. It is prophesied that Isa ibn Maryam (pboh) will come to Christianity in the New Testament. It is prophesied that the Messiah, which is Isa ibn Maryam (pboh) the Messiah of Guidance, will come to Jews in the Torah. Salt dissolves in water

This prophecy is found in Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib’s Nahj’ul Balagha [The Path of Eloquence], Khutba 141, 187: “The Imam who will create a world state will make the ruling nations pay for their crimes against society. He will bring succor to humanity. He will take out the hidden wealth from the breast of the earth and will distribute it equitably amongst the needy deserving. He will teach you simple living and high thinking. He will make you understand that virtue is a state of character which is always a mean between the two extremes, and which is based on equity and justice. He will revive the teaching of the Holy Qur’an and the traditions of the Holy Prophet after the world has ignored them as dead letters. He will protect and defend himself with resources of science and supreme knowledge. His control over these resources will be complete. He will know how supreme they are and how carefully they will have to be used. His mind will be free from desires of bringing harm and injury to humanity. Such a knowledge to him will belike the property which was wrongly possessed by others and for which he was waiting for the permission to repossess and use. He, in the beginning, will be a poor stranger unknown and uncared for, and Islam then will be in the helpless and hopeless plight of an exhausted camel who has laid down its head and is wagging its tail. With such a start he will establish an empire of God in this world. He will be the final demonstration and proof of God’s merciful wish to acquaint man with the right ways of life.

“This is the representative of Allah, the Mahdi; listen to him and obey him”

Isa will appear during the lifetime of Imam Mahdi. He will descend from heaven on a cloud (or supported by two angels). He will land among a righteous group of 800 men and 400 women. He will be of medium build, red-faced, with hair that appears wet. Isa will carry two flexible swords and a shield, with which he will destroy Dajjal at the Gate of Hudd in the valley of Ifiq; otherwise, at Baad Lud (Lydda). Then the final war with the Jews will begin; the Believers will be the victors. Isa will “break the cross” and “kill the swine”. Thereafter, all wars will end, including Jihad, and people will return to their own countries. Peace will be on the Earth, and there will be an abundance of crops. People will worship one God. Isa will marry, have children, and live thus for another 19 years (40 years total). There will be no illness or death for a period of 40 years. All venom will be removed from poisonous insects and animals, nor will animals harm anyone. The earth shall be so fertile that even if a seed is planted in a rock, it will sprout there. Fruit will grow to huge size. There will be so much milk that a single camel, cow or goat will feed a tribe.

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1 Kings 9:4-9

And if thou wilt walk before me, as David thy father walked, in integrity of heart, and in uprightness, to do according to all that I have commanded thee, and wilt keep my statutes and my judgments:

Then I will establish the throne of thy kingdom upon Israel for ever, as I promised to David thy father, saying, There shall not fail thee a man upon the throne of Israel.

But if ye shall at all turn from following me, ye or your children, and will not keep my commandments and my statutes which I have set before you, but go and serve other gods, and worship them:

Then will I cut off Israel out of the land which I have given them; and this house, which I have hallowed for my name, will I cast out of my sight; and Israel shall be a proverb and a byword among all people:

And at this house, which is high, every one that passeth by it shall be astonished, and shall hiss; and they shall say, Why hath the Lord done thus unto this land, and to this house?

And they shall answer, Because they forsook the Lord their God, who brought forth their fathers out of the land of Egypt, and have taken hold upon other gods, and have worshipped them, and served them: therefore hath the Lord brought upon them all this evil.

19 And all the cities of store that Solomon had, and cities for his chariots, and cities for his horsemen, and that which Solomon desired to build in Jerusalem, and in Lebanon, and in all the land of his dominion.

20 And all the people that were left of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which were not of the children of Israel,

21 Their children that were left after them in the land, whom the children of Israel also were not able utterly to destroy, upon those did Solomon levy a tribute of bondservice unto this day.

22 But of the children of Israel did Solomon make no bondmen: but they were men of war, and his servants, and his princes, and his captains, and rulers of his chariots, and his horsemen.

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