Worship and Rest

By synecdoche (naming the whole for a part), in Jewish sources by the time of the Septuagint, the term “Sabbath” (Greek Sabbaton, Strong’s 4521) also came to mean an entire “se’nnight” or seven-day week, the interval between two weekly Sabbaths. Jesus’s parable of the Pharisee and the Publican (Luke 18:9–14) describes the Pharisee as fasting “twice a week” (Greek dis tou sabbatou, literally, “twice of the Sabbath”).

Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part, the special for the general or the general for the special, as in ten sail for ten ships or a Croesus for a rich man.

Luke 18:9-14 (KJV) And he spake this parable unto certain which trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others: 10 Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. 11 The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, God, I thank thee, that I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican. 12 I fast twice in the week, I give tithes of all that I possess. 13 And the publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, saying, God be merciful to me a sinner. 14 I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other: for every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.

“High Sabbaths” are observed by Jews and some Christians. Seven annual Biblical festivals, called miqra (“called assembly”) in Hebrew and “High Sabbath” in English and serving as supplemental testimonies to Sabbath, are specified in the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy; they do not necessarily fall on weekly Sabbath. Three occur in spring: the first and seventh days of Pesach (Passover), and Shavuot (Pentecost). Four occur in fall, in the seventh month, and are also called Shabbaton: Rosh Hashanah (Trumpets); Yom Kippur, “Sabbath of Sabbaths” (Atonement); and the first and eighth days of Sukkoth (Tabernacles). “High Sabbaths” is also often a synonym of “High Holy Days”, viz., Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.


Shmita (Hebrew: שמטה‎, Strong’s 8059 as shemittah, literally “release”), also called sabbatical year, is the seventh (שביעי, Strong’s 7637 as shebiy’iy) year of the seven-year agricultural cycle mandated by Torah for the Land of Israel, relatively little observed in Biblical tradition, but still observed in contemporary Judaism. During Shmita, the land is left to lie fallow and all agricultural activity, including plowing, planting, pruning and harvesting, is forbidden by Torah and Jewish law. By tradition, other cultivation techniques (such as watering, fertilizing, weeding, spraying, trimming and mowing) may be performed as preventative measures only, not to improve the growth of trees or plants; additionally, whatever fruits grow of their own accord during that year are deemed hefker (ownerless), not for the landowner but for the poor, the stranger, and the beasts of the field; these fruits may be picked by anyone. A variety of laws also apply to the sale, consumption and disposal of Shmita produce. When the year ended, all debts, except those of foreigners, were to be remitted (Deuteronomy 15:1–11); in similar fashion, Torah requires a slave who had worked for six years to go free in the seventh year. Leviticus 25 promises bountiful harvests to those who observe Shmita, and describes its observance as a test of religious faith. The term Shmita is translated “release” five times in the Book of Deuteronomy (from the root שמט, shamat, “desist, remit“, 8058).


Jewish Shabbat (Shabbath, Shabbes, Shobos, etc.) is a weekly day of rest, observed from sundown on Friday until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night; it is also observed by a minority of Christians (as in Messianic Judaism). Thirty-nine activities prohibited on Shabbat are listed in Tractate Shabbat (Talmud). Customarily, Shabbat is ushered in by lighting candles shortly before sunset, at halakhically calculated times that change weekly and geographically.

Judah ha-Levi (12th century) proposed a nascent Jewish date line for dating of Shabbat, later calculated to fall between China and Japan (other lines exist, and travelers are expected to note both personal and local Shabbat); and Pinchas Elijah Horovitz (18th century) stated that polar regions should observe Shabbat based on calculating 24-hour days, although without establishing a date line.

Shabbat is a widely noted hallmark of Jewish peoples. Subbotniks (literally, Sabbatarians) are a Russian sect, categorized as either Jews or Judaizing Christians, that became particularly branded by strict Shabbat observance; (Hungarian-born radical Reform leader Ignaz Einhorn even shifted his congregation’s Shabbat worship to Sundays.) Several weekly Shabbats per year are designated as Special Sabbaths, such as Shabbat haGadol, prior to Pesach (literally, “the High Sabbath”, but not to be confused with other High Sabbaths); and Shabbat Teshuvah, prior to Yom Kippur (“Repentance Sabbath”).


Colloquially, in contemporary Israel, the term Shabbaton or Shaboson means an event or program of education and usually celebration held on Shabbat, or over an entire weekend with main focus on Shabbat. Such events are held by youth groups, singles groups, synagogues, schools, social groups, charitable groups or family reunions, can be either multi-generational and wide-open or limited-group, and can be held where a group usually meets or offsite. “Shabbaton“, rather than just “retreat”, signifies recognition of the importance of Shabbat in the event or program.


In Eastern Christianity and Catholicism, the Sabbath is considered still to be on Saturday, the seventh day, in remembrance of the Hebrew Sabbath. In most of Protestantism also, the “Lord’s Day” (Greek κυριακός) is considered to be on Sunday, the first day (and “eighth day”). Communal worship, including the Holy Mysteries, may take place on any day, but a weekly observance of the resurrection is made consistently on Sunday. Western Christianity sometimes refers to the Lord’s Day as a “Christian Sabbath”, distinct from the Hebrew Sabbath, but related in varying manner. Many Christians affirm commonly that communal worship is not limited to Sabbath (Acts 2:45), and that “Sabbath was made for man”, meaning all mankind (Mark 2:27).


Since Puritan times, most English-speaking Protestants identify the “Lord’s Day” (viz., Sunday) with a “Christian Sabbath”, a term Roman Catholics in those areas may also use informally. Kept in commemoration of the resurrection of Christ, it is often celebrated with the Eucharist. For many it is the day of rest, and of communal worship in remembrance of Resurrection Day. It is considered both the first day and the “eighth day” of the seven-day week. Relatively few Christians (as in the Church of Scotland) regard first-day observance as entailing all of the ordinances of Jewish Shabbat in a more rigorous abstention from “worldly” activities. Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints generally follow the stronger of first-day Christian Sabbatarian traditions, avoiding shopping, leisure activities, and work unless absolutely necessary. In Tonga, all commerce and entertainment activities cease on Sunday, starting at midnight and ending the next day, at midnight. Tonga’s constitution declares this Sabbath sacred forever. Sometimes Lord’s Day is observed by those who believe Sabbath corresponds to Saturday but is obsolete. In Oriental Orthodoxy, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has observed both Sunday Resurrection Day and Saturday Sabbath in different ways for several centuries, as have other Eastern Orthodox traditions.

Puritan Sabbatarianism or Reformed Sabbatarianism is strict observance of Sabbath in Christianity that is typically characterized by its avoidance of recreational activities. “Puritan Sabbath”, expressed in the Westminster Confession of Faith, is often contrasted with “Continental Sabbath”: the latter follows the Continental Reformed confessions such as the Heidelberg Catechism, which emphasize rest and worship on Lord’s Day, but do not forbid recreational activities.

Several Christian denominations observe Sabbath in a similar manner to Judaism, though with observance ending at Saturday sunset instead of Saturday nightfall. Early church historians Sozomen and Socrates cite the seventh day as the Christian day of worship except for the Christians in Rome and Alexandria. Many Sabbatarian Judeo-Christian groups were attested during the Middle Ages; the Szekler Sabbatarians were founded in 1588 from among the Unitarian Church of Transylvania and maintained a presence until the group converted to Judaism in the 1870s. Seventh Day Baptists have observed Sabbath on Saturday since the mid-17th century (either from sundown or from midnight), and influenced the (now more numerous) Seventh-day Adventists in America to begin the practice in the mid-19th century. They believe that keeping seventh-day Sabbath is a moral responsibility equal to that of any of the other Ten Commandments, based on the example of Jesus. They also use “Lord’s Day” to mean the seventh day, based on Scriptures in which God calls the day “my Sabbath” (Exodus 31:13) and “to the LORD” (Exodus 16:23) and in which Jesus calls himself “Lord of Sabbath” (Matthew 12:8). The question of defining Sabbath worldwide on a round earth was resolved by some seventh-day Sabbatarians by making use of the International Date Line (i.e., permitting local rest-day adjustment, Esther 9:16–19), while others (such as some Alaskan Sabbatarians) keep Sabbath according to Jerusalem time (i.e., rejecting manmade temporal customs, Daniel 7:25). Many of the Lemba in southern Africa, like some other African tribes, are Christians and claim common descent from the Biblical Israelites, keep one day a week holy like Sabbath, and maintain many beliefs and practices associated with Judaism.

The new moon, occurring every 29 or 30 days, is an important separately sanctioned occasion in Judaism and some other faiths. It is not widely regarded as Sabbath, but some messianic and Pentecostal churches, such as the native New Israelites of Peru and the Creation Seventh Day Adventist Church, do keep the day of the new moon as Sabbath or rest day, from evening to evening. New-moon services can last all day.

Day of the Vow or Dingane’s Day (Afrikaans Geloftedag or Dingaansdag, December 16) was the name of a religious public holiday in South Africa commemorating a famous Boer victory over the Zulu. Celebrated as annual Sabbath (a holy day of thanksgiving) since 1838, it was renamed Day of Reconciliation in 1994. The anniversary and its commemoration are intimately connected with various streams of Afrikaner and South African nationalism.

Since Hippolytus of Rome in the early third century, Christians have often considered that some thousand-year Sabbath, expected to begin six thousand years after Creation, might be identical with the millennium described in the Book of Revelation. This view was also popular among 19th- and 20th-century dispensational premillennialists. The term “Sabbatism” or “Sabbatizing” (Greek Sabbatismos), which generically means any literal or spiritual Sabbath-keeping, has also been taken in Hebrews 4:9 to have special reference to this definition.

As another minority view, some modern Christians uphold Sabbath principles but do not limit observance to either Saturday or Sunday, instead advocating rest on any one chosen day of the week as following the spirit of Sabbath, or advocating Sabbath as instead a symbolic metaphor for rest in Christ. These look upon Sabbath as a principle to be observed in spirit rather than in letter, regarding the rest offered in Jesus as the only New Testament admonishment containing the root word of “Sabbath” (Matthew 11:28) and sometimes as a more permanent rest than a day could fulfill (Hebrews 4:9).

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believe the Lord has commanded them to continue to observe the Sabbath. He has promised them that if they obey this commandment, they will receive “the fullness of the earth.” Mormons are taught that they should keep it a holy day and it should be reserved for holy activities. In a revelation given to founder Joseph Smith in 1831, the Lord commanded:

“That thou mayest more fully keep thyself unspotted from the world, thou shalt go to the house of prayer and offer up thy sacraments upon my holy day; for verily this is a day appointed unto you to rest from your labors, and to pay thy devotions unto the Most High.”

— D&C 59:9–10

In harmony with this revelation, Mormons attend sacrament meeting each week. Other Sabbath-day activities may include: praying, meditating, studying the scriptures and the teachings of latter-day prophets, writing letters to family members and friends, reading wholesome material, visiting the sick and distressed, and attending other Church meetings.

Sapattu and Shappatum

Counting from the new moon, the Babylonians celebrated the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th as “holy-days”, also called “evil days” (meaning “unsuitable” for prohibited activities). On these days officials were prohibited from various activities and common men were forbidden to “make a wish”, and at least the 28th was known as a “rest-day”. On each of them, offerings were made to a different god and goddess. Tablets from the 6th-century BC reigns of Cyrus the Great and Cambyses indicate these dates were sometimes approximate. The lunation of 29 or 30 days basically contained three seven-day weeks, and a final week of nine or ten days inclusive, breaking the continuous seven-day cycle. The Babylonians additionally celebrated the 19th as a special “evil day”, the “day of anger”, because it was roughly the 49th day of the (preceding) month, completing a “week of weeks”, also with sacrifices and prohibitions. Difficulties with Friedrich Delitzsch’s origin theory connecting Hebrew Shabbat with the Babylonian lunar cycle include reconciling the differences between an unbroken week and a lunar week, and explaining the absence of texts naming the lunar week as Shabbat in any language. Reconstruction of a broken tablet seems to define the rarely attested Babylonian Akkadian word Sapattum or Sabattum as the full moon: this word is cognate or merged with Hebrew Shabbat, but is monthly rather than weekly. It is regarded as a form of Sumerian sa-bat (“mid-rest”), attested in Akkadian as um nuh libbi (“day of mid-repose”). This conclusion is a contextual restoration of the damaged Enûma Eliš creation mythos, which is read as: “[Sa]pattu shalt thou then encounter, mid[month]ly.”

The pentecontad calendar, thought to be of Amorite origin, includes a period known to Babylonians as Shappatum. The year is broken down into seven periods of fifty days (made up of seven weeks of seven days, containing seven weekly Sabbaths, and an extra fiftieth day, known as the atzeret), plus an annual supplement of fifteen or sixteen days, called Shappatum, the period of harvest time at the end of each year. Identified and reconstructed by Hildegaard and Julius Lewy in the 1940s, the calendar’s use dates back to at least the 3rd millennium BC in Western Mesopotamia and surrounding areas; it was used by the Canaanite tribes, thought by some to have been used by the Israelites prior to King Solomon, and related to the liturgical calendar of the Essenes at Qumran. Used well into the modern age, forms of it have been found in Nestorianism and among the Palestinian fellaheen. Julius Morgenstern believed that the calendar of the Jubilees had ancient origins as a somewhat modified survival of the pentecontad calendar.

In relating to the seventh and other days of the month, the Zoroastrian calendar contributed to the Jewish calendar. A number of writings by early Christians in the New Testament apocrypha (Zostrianos, Marsenes and Allogenes) describe God’s revelation received by a man named Zostrianos. Further evidence of Zoroastrian influence on Judaic tradition is demonstrated through Nehemiah, the Priest in the Book of Nehemiah, a book of the Neviim contained in the Tanakh. With the support and protection of Artaxerxes I of Persia (445/444 BC), Nehemiah purified the Temple and the priests and Levites and enforced the observance of the law of Moses.

Second Temple

For exemplar, the observance of Passover coincides with Nowruz, the Zoroastrian New Year which marks the first day of spring or vernal Equinox.


The Uposatha has been observed since Gautama Buddha’s time (500 BCE), and is still being kept today in Theravada Buddhist countries. It occurs every seven or eight days, in accordance with the four phases of the moon. Buddha taught that Uposatha is for “the cleansing of the defiled mind”, resulting in inner calm and joy. On this day, disciples and monks intensify their practice, deepen their knowledge, and express communal commitment through millennia-old acts of lay-monastic reciprocity.

Wan Phra

Thai Chinese likewise observe their Sabbaths and traditional Chinese holidays according to lunar phases, but not on exactly the same days as Uposatha. These Sabbaths cycle through the month with respect to the Thai solar calendar, so common Thai calendars incorporate Thai and Chinese calendar lunar dates, as well as Uposatha dates, for religious purposes.

The first day of the new moon, beginning at sunrise, is a holiday of quiet reflection and prayer among the Cherokee. Monthly fasting is encouraged, for up to four days. Work, cooking, sex and childbirth were also prohibited during the empty moon days, called “un-time” or “non-days”; childbirth during these days was considered unlucky. The Cherokee new year, the “great new moon” or “Hunting Moon”, is the first new moon in autumn, after the setting of the Pleiades star cluster and around the time of the Leonids meteoric shower.

One folk tradition in English is the widespread use of “Sabbath” as a synonym of midnight-to-midnight “Saturday” (literally, Saturn’s day in at least a dozen languages): this is a simplification of the use of “Sabbath” in other religious contexts, where the two do not coincide. (Using midnight instead of sundown as delimiter dates back to the Roman Empire.) In over thirty other languages, the common name for this day in the seven-day week is a cognate of “Sabbath”. “Sabbatini”, originally “Sabbadini”, often “Sabatini”, etc., is a very frequent Italian name form (“Sabbatos” is the Greek form), indicating a family whose ancestor was born on Saturday, Italian sabato; “Domenico” indicated birth on Sunday. In vampire hunter lore, people born on Saturday were specially designated as sabbatianoí in Greek and sâbotnichavi in Bulgarian (rendered in English as “Sabbatarians”). It was also believed in the Balkans that someone born on a Saturday could see a vampire when it was otherwise invisible.


The Quran acknowledges a six-part Creation period (32:4, 50:38) and the Biblical Sabbath as the seventh-day (yaum as-Sabt: 2:65, 4:47, 154, 7:163, 16:124), but Allah’s mounting the throne after Creation is taken in contradistinction to Elohim’s concluding and resting from his labors, and so Muslims replace Sabbath rest with jumu’ah (Arabic جمعة ). Also known as “Friday prayer”, jumu’ah is a congregational prayer (salat) held every Friday (the Day of Assembly), just after midday, in place of the otherwise daily dhuhr prayer; it commemorates the creation of Adam on the sixth day, as a loving gathering of Adam’s sons. The Quran states: “When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday, hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business: That is best for you if ye but knew” (62:9). The next verse (“When the prayer is ended, then disperse in the land …”) leads many Muslims not to consider Friday a rest day, as in Indonesia, which regards the seventh-day Sabbath as unchanged; but many Muslim countries, such as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bangladesh, do consider Friday a nonwork day, a holiday or a weekend; and other Muslim countries, like Pakistan, count it as half a rest day (after the Friday prayer is over). Jumu’ah attendance is strictly incumbent upon all free adult males who are legal residents of the locality.

Sabbat, Esbat and Witches’ Sabbath

The annual cycle of the Earth’s seasons is called the Wheel of the Year in Wicca and neopaganism. Eight sabbats (occasionally “sabbaths”, or “Sun sabbats”) are spaced at approximately even intervals throughout the year. Samhain, which coincides with Halloween, is considered the first sabbat of the year.

An esbat is a ritual observance of the full moon in Wicca and neopaganism. Some groups extend the esbat to include the dark moon and the first and last quarters. “Esbat” and “sabbat” are distinct and are probably not cognate terms, although an esbat is also called “moon sabbat”.

European records from the Middle Ages to the 17th century or later also place Witches’ Sabbaths on similar dates to sabbats in modern Wicca, but with some disagreement; medieval reports of sabbat activity are generally not firsthand and may be imaginative, but many persons were accused of, or tried for, taking part in sabbats.

Ahn Shi Il

The Unification Church has a regular day of worship on Sunday, but every eight days Unificationists celebrate the day of Ahn Shi Il, considered as Sabbath but cycling among the weekdays of the Gregorian calendar. The Family Pledge, formerly recited at 5:00 a.m. on Sundays, was moved to Ahn Shi Il in 1994 and includes eight verses containing the phrase “by centering on true love”.

Secular use of “Sabbath” for “rest day”, while it usually refers to the same period of time (Sunday) as the majority Christian use of “Sabbath”, is often stated in North America to refer to different purposes for the rest day than those of Christendom. In McGowan v. Maryland (1961), the Supreme Court of the United States held that contemporary Maryland blue laws (typically, Sunday rest laws) were intended to promote the secular values of “health, safety, recreation, and general well-being” through a common day of rest, and that this day coinciding with majority Christian Sabbath neither reduces its effectiveness for secular purposes nor prevents adherents of other religions from observing their own holy days. Massachusetts, uncharacteristically, does not specify the weekday in its “Day of Rest” statute, providing only that one day off from work is required every week; an unspecified weekly day off is a very widespread business production cycle. The Supreme Court of Canada, in R. v. Big M Drug Mart Ltd. (1985) and R. v. Edwards Books and Art Ltd. (1986), found some blue laws invalid for having no legitimate secular purpose, but others valid because they had no religious purpose.

The weekend is that period of the week set aside by custom or law for rest from labor. In many countries it is Saturday and Sunday and often includes Friday night. This five-day workweek arose in America when labor unions attempted to accommodate Jewish Sabbath, beginning at a New England cotton mill and also instituted by Henry Ford in 1926; it became standard in America by about 1940 and spread among English-speaking and European countries to become the international workweek. China adopted it in 1995 and Hong Kong by 2006. India and some other countries follow both the international workweek and a more traditional Saturday half-workday and Sunday weekend. While Indonesia and Lebanon have the international workweek, most Muslim countries count Friday as the weekend, alone or with Thursday (all or half) or Saturday. Some universities permit a three-day weekend from Friday to Sunday. The weekend in Israel, and parts of Malaysia, is Friday (all or half) and Saturday. Only the one-day customary or legal weekends are usually called “Sabbath”.

Blank day, Chinese week, Décadi and Soviet week

State-mandated rest days are widespread. Laws of the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) required imperial officials to rest on every mu (every fifth day), within a ten-day Chinese week. The rest day was changed to huan or xún (every tenth day) in the Tang Dynasty (618–907).

The reform calendar of the French Revolution was used from 1793 to 1805. It contained twelve months of three ten-day weeks; the five or six extra days needed to approximate the tropical year were placed after the months at the end of each year. The tenth day of each week, décadi, replaced Sunday as the day of rest and festivity in France.

From 1929 to 1931, the Soviet Union mandated a five-day week, with each day designated by color as a state rest day for a different 20% of the workforce; families usually did not share rest days. Three weeks a year were six or seven days, because interrupted by holidays. From 1931 to 1940, the Soviets mandated a six-day week, with state rest days for all upon the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th, and 30th of each Gregorian month, as well as upon March 1. This also necessitated varying weeks of five to seven days over the year.

Among many calendar reform proposals that eliminate the constant seven-day week in exchange for simplified calculation of calendrical data like weekday names for given dates, some retain Sabbatical influences. The Hermetic Lunar Week Calendar uses moon phases, resulting in weeks of six to nine days. The International Fixed Calendar and World Calendar both consist of 364-day years containing exactly 52 weeks (each starting on a day designated as Sunday), with an additional one or two intercalary “blank” days not designated as part of any week (Year Day and Leap Day in the International Fixed Calendar; Worldsday and Leapyear Day in the World Calendar). Reform supporters sought to accommodate Sabbatical observance by retaining the modified week and designating the intercalary days as additional Sabbaths or holidays; however, religious leaders held that such days disrupt the traditional seven-day weekly cycle. This unresolved issue contributed to the cessation of reform activities in the 1930s (International Fixed Calendar) and again in 1955 (World Calendar), though supporters of both proposals remain.

The subbotnik is a weekly day of volunteer work on Saturday in Russia, other (former) Soviet republics, the Eastern Bloc, and the German Democratic Republic, sporadically observed since 1919. The voskresnik is a related volunteer workday on Sunday. They focus on community service work; “Lenin’s Subbotnik” was also observed annually around his birthday.

From the biblical sabbatical year came the modern concept of sabbatical, a prolonged, often one-year, hiatus in the career of an individual (not usually tied to a seven-year period). Such a period is often taken in order to fulfill some goal such as writing a book or traveling extensively for research. Some universities and other institutional employers of scientists, physicians, or academics offer paid sabbatical as an employee benefit, called “sabbatical leave”; some companies offer unpaid sabbatical for people wanting to take career breaks.

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Saturn, Saturday, Sabbat, Sabbath, Sabbatai, Sabbatean

Luke 18:9-14 (KJV) And he spake this parable unto certain which trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others: 10 Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. 11 The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, God, I thank thee, that I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican. 12 I fast twice in the week, I give tithes of all that I possess. 13 And the publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, saying, God be merciful to me a sinner. 14 I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other: for every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.

The Witches’ Sabbath or Sabbat is a meeting of those who practice witchcraft and other rites. Witches’ Sabbath is a midnight assembly of witches, devils, and sorcerers for the celebration of rites and orgies. Sabbat is any of eight neo-pagan religious festivals commemorating phases of the changing seasons.

Sabbath is a day set aside for rest and worship. According to Exodus 20:8 the Sabbath is commanded by God to be kept as a holy day of rest, as God rested from creation. It is observed differently among the Abrahamic religions and informs a similar occasion in several other practices. Although many viewpoints and definitions have arisen over the millennia, most originate in the same textual tradition of: “Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy”.

In Judaism, Sabbath is the seventh day of the Hebrew calendar week, in English known as Saturday. The term has been used to describe a similar weekly observance in any of several other traditions; the first crescent or new moon; any of seven annual festivals in Judaism and some Christian traditions; any of eight annual pagan festivals (usually “sabbat”); an annual secular holiday; and a year of rest in religious or secular usage, the sabbath year, originally every seventh year.

Saturn’s Jews: On the Witches’ Sabbat and Sabbateanism
The name of the witches’ sabbat came from the Jewish holy day, the Sabbath, and both sabbat and Sabbath started on Friday. The connection between two terms, Judaism and witchcraft – sabbat and Sabbath – did appear as believable because of a third term, the planet Saturn. Both Hellenistic and Arab astrology believed that peoples had their own presiding planet, and indicated Saturn as the planet of the Jews. And the Jews indeed observed as their holy day Saturday, i.e. Saturn’s day. A whole school of Jewish sages and philosophers, well versed in astrology and combining astrosophical themes with the Kabbalah, also took for granted that Saturn was indeed the planet presiding over Israel. Hence the further idea that the coming Messiah will have a special relationship with Saturn, which – Idel claims – is one of the factors explaining both the personality and the success of Sabbatai Zevi (1626-1676), the 17th century adventurer who claimed to be the long awaited Messiah. Zevi made the most of his first name, Sabbatai, connected with bot Sabbath and Saturn, but his followers believed this name to be quite significant, thus evidencing the continuing influence of the «secondary elite» in larger Jewish circles.

It would not be until just before the 200 Anniversary (1776-1976) of the Sabbatean Masonic birth in the United States of America that Rabbi Marvin Antelman, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of America became the first modern rabbi to expose the modern agenda of the Sabbateans. In the year of 1974 he wrote a book called “To Eliminate the Opiate, Volume I” that you will find heading the list of every classic list of books on modern conspiracies.  It was be followed by the sequel, “To Eliminate the Opiate, Volume II”, twenty four years later in the year of 1998 that exposed the vast influence of the Sabbateans within the modern State of Israel, and why their symbiotic relationships with the globalists was and is so profound to Jewish orthodoxy and covenanted Jews.

Frankism, a Jewish religious movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, centered on the leadership of the Jewish Messiah claimant Jacob Frank, who lived from 1726 to 1791. At its height it claimed perhaps 50,000 followers, primarily Jews living in Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe. Unlike traditional Judaism, which provides a set of detailed guidelines called halakha that are scrupulously followed by observant Jews and regulate many aspects of life, Frank claimed that “all laws and teachings will fall” and following antinomianism asserted that one’s most important personal obligation of every person was the transgression of every boundary.

Frankism is commonly associated with Sabbateanism, a religious movement that formed around the identification of the 17th-century Jewish rabbi Sabbatai Zevi as the Jewish messiah. Like Frankism, the earlier forms of Sabbateanism believed that at least in some circumstances, antinomianism was the correct path.

In Christianity, an antinomian is one who takes the principle of salvation by faith and divine grace to the point of asserting that the saved are not bound to follow the Law of Moses. The distinction between antinomian and other Christian views on moral law is that antinomians believe that obedience to the law is motivated by an internal principle flowing from belief rather than from any external compulsion.

Zevi himself would perform actions that violated traditional Jewish taboos, such as eating fats that were forbidden by Jewish dietary laws and celebrating former fast days as feast days. Especially after Zevi’s death, a number of branches of Sabbateanism evolved, which disagreed among themselves over which aspects of traditional Judaism should be preserved and which discarded. Some branches of Sabbateans actually converted to Islam, in emulation of Zevi—in 1666, the Ottoman Sultan had forced Zevi to become a Muslim. The more radical branches even engaged in orgies. In Frankism, orgies featured prominently in ritual.

Within a few years, the Sabbateans congregated in Saloniki, a center of the Sephardi world. Like the Spanish conversos who’d remained secret Jews, they led double lives – but the Doenmeh were voluntary Marranos. They never integrated into Muslim society, and continued to believe that Shabbtai Tzvi would one day return and lead them to redemption.

Marranos were originally Jews living in Iberia who converted or were forced to convert to Christianity, some of whom may have continued to practice Judaism in secret. The term came into later use in 1492 with the Castilian Alhambra Decree, reversing protections originally in the Treaty of Granada (1491).

Several authorities on Sabbateanism, including Heinrich Graetz and Aleksander Kraushar, were skeptical of the existence of such a thing as a distinctive “Frankist” doctrine. According to Gershom Scholem, another authority on Sabbateanism, Kraushar had described Frank’s sayings as “grotesque, comical and incomprehensible”. In his classic essay “Redemption Through Sin”, Scholem argued a different position, seeing Frankism as a later and more radical outgrowth of Sabbateanism. In contrast, Jay Michaelson argues that Frankism was “an original theology that was innovative, if sinister” and was in many respects a departure from the earlier formulations of Sabbateanism. In traditional Sabbatean doctrine, Zevi and often his followers claimed to be able to liberate the sparks of holiness hidden within what seemed to be evil.

According to Michaelson, Frank’s theology asserted that the attempt to liberate the sparks of holiness was the problem, not the solution. Rather, Frank claimed that the mixing between holy and unholy was virtuous. Netanel Lederberg claims that Frank had a Gnostic philosophy wherein there was a “true God” whose existence was hidden by a “false God”. This “true God” could allegedly only be revealed through a total destruction of the social and religious structures created by the “false God”, thus leading to a thorough antinomianism. For Frank, the very distinction between good and evil is a product of a world governed by the “false God”. Lederberg compares Frank’s position to that of Friedrich Nietzsche.

Sabbatean/Frankists, also referred to as the Cult of the All-Seeing Eye. Jacob Frank (1726-1791), the leader of the Sabbatean/Frankists, proclaimed himself to be the reincarnation of Sabbatai Zevi and the living Messiah for all Jews. If it is possible to have evil personified, Jacob Frank represented evil at its absolute worst. Not even Sabbatai Zevi was as evil as Frank and his disciples.


It was the Kabbalistic leadership that handpicked Jacob Frank to develop the teaching begun by Sabbatai and to indoctrinate Mayer Amschel Rothschild and Adam Weishaupt. This alliance of Frank-Rothschild-Weishaupt formed an unholy trinity.

  1. THEOLOGY: Jacob Frank was in charge of creating a theology that would be the foundation for revolutions. 2. BANKING: Mayer Amschel was in charge of world banking. 3. REVOLUTION: Adam Weishaupt was in charge of the revolutionary political development in the world.


Jacob Frank taught “holiness through sin” and that “good” would cone through the triumph of Evil. What was prohibited would be allowed including adultery, incest and pedophilia.

To ascend one must first descend. No man can climb a mountain until he has descended to its foot. Therefore we must descend and be cast down to the bottom rung, for only then can we climb to the infinite. No region of the human soul can remain untouched by this struggle.

“I did not come into this world to lift you up but rather to cast you down to the bottom of the abyss…The descent into the abyss requires not only the rejection of all religions and conventions, but also the commission of ‘strange acts,’ and this in turn demands the voluntary abasement (degradation) of one’s own sense of self, so that libertinism (no morality) and the achievement of the state of utter shamelessness which leads to a tikkun of soul are one and the same thing.”


Jacob Frank reversed the truth. “Since we cannot all be saints, let us all be sinners.” Inspired by Satan, he wrote the doctrine of the Antichrist which permitted orgiastic, sexually promiscuous rites – incest, rape and sexually intercourse with children, including sodomy on young boys. Lucifer was declared the “true god”. Witchcraft and satanic rituals were introduced with animals and human sacrifices.

In 1755, Jacob Frank formed an official body of believers in Kabbalah, who became known as Zoharists. Their sacred writing is the Zohar – the most important writing among the 550 books of the Kabbalah. In 1756, Jewish Rabbis and leaders who had not been converted the Kabalistic teachings of Sabbetai rejected Jacob Frank and his followers and declared them heretics.

Frank led his followers into the Roman Catholic Church where he was baptized. By 1760, the Roman Catholic Inquisition discovered that Frank and his followers were using Catholicism as a cover for their evil ends. Frank was arrested and imprisoned for the next 13 years.


Upon his release from prison, Jacob Frank traveled to Frankfurt, Germany where the Rothschild banking family were headquartered. Frank was granted the title of Baron, lived the life of a wealthy German nobleman and attracted a large following of Jews in Germany and in other European countries including the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city of Prague became a center for Frankists Jews and played a major role in the beginning of the Zionist movement.

by Henry Makow Ph.D.

In 1988, Gunther Plaut, a prominent Canadian Rabbi, published a book implying that Frankist Jews were responsible for the holocaust. The idea was endorsed by no less an authority than the Jewish Nobel Laureate – Elie Wiesel.

“The Man Who Would be Messiah” is a novelized biography of Jacob Frank (1726-1791) who led a Satanic heresy against orthodox Judaism. He claimed to be the Messiah and reincarnation of another Satanic impostor, Shabbetai Zvi (1626-1676). Their aim was to destroy the social order (nation, family, race, religion, property) and turn the morality of the Jewish Torah on its head.

Jacob Frank taught “holiness through sin.” Good would come through the annihilation of Western civilization and the triumph of Evil. What was prohibited would be allowed including adultery, incest and pedophilia.

The Rothschilds were Sabbatean-Frankists. This Satanic movement gave birth to the Illuminati, Communism and the NWO. It controls the world today. But ironically, while many Illuminati pretend to be Jews, they actually wish to destroy Jews who earlier had excommunicated and vilified them. Thus, there is an unrecognized schism in the Jewish people, where heretics have exterminated the  mainstream and taken control of the remnant through Zionism. Yet, due to the anti-Semitism that the Illuminati Jews are causing and organizing, the Jewish population are mistakenly clinging to their leadership.

The Nazi hierarchy was probably of Frankist origin. Rabbi Plaut, who was President of the Canadian Jewish Congress, talks about the holocaust plan in his book, “The Man Who Would be Messiah”.


The Frankists cover their tracks. Biographies of Jacob Frank are out of print and very expensive ($300). Nevertheless Gunther Plaut researched Jacob Frank thoroughly and drew a portrait of him as a consciousless con-artist who sought power for its own sake. According to Plaut, Frank regarded Jews as a barrier to the “new order.”

Frankists achieved power by pretending to subscribe to every religion and ideology, and by intermarriage with generational Satanists. Frankist/Sabbateans pretend to be Christians, Muslims and Jews. Behind the scenes, they advance their kinsmen, manipulate events and have gained covert control of governments and economies.

Blaming “the Jews” for the NWO is an Illuminati trap. The Jewish people, and indeed all religions and nations, are led by Frankist (Illuminati) Satanists, their lackeys and dupes. The Frankists (Illuminati) take charge of both sides of wars and revolutions with the goal of destroying Western civilization. They incite war for its own sake and exterminate those who oppose them.

By Jack Manuelian

The famous document known as the “Protocols of Zion” can be paraphrased as The Protocols of Zionism and most likely it was a secret Sabbatean Frankist document. Sabbateans had many writings which due to the secretive and revolutionary nature of their cult were kept hidden. The original Protocols seems to have been one of those that was no longer secret after parts of it was printed as minutes of a covert meeting in Paris in 1901, minutes that were later published in Russia by Nilus.

“It must be noted that people with corrupt instincts are more numerous than those of noble instinct. Therefore in governing the world the best results are obtained by means of violence and intimidation, and not by academic discussions.” The violence cited here would include a World War III. In the other hand the concept that humans are basically evil are reflected also in Sabbatean beliefs that state: “Since we cannot all be saints, let us all be sinners.”

Also the Talmud emphasizes that humans are basically brute beasts; for this same reason the Protocols opens its chapter II with the phrase “What restrained the wild beasts of prey which we call men? ” Their solution of course is despotism and rulership by fear; fear being one of the main characteristics of the animals.

Protocol 3.14 “The word ‘liberty’ brings society into conflict with all the powers, even with that of Nature and of God. That is why, when we come into power, we must strike the word ‘liberty’ out of the human dictionary, as being the symbol of bestial power, which turns the populace into blood-thirsty animals.”

Brilliant, wealthy people addicted to power, anxious to assimilate (if they were born Jewish), to destroy religions, to indulge in radicalism, to live cryptic two-faced lives sometimes posing as religious Jews, Catholics, or Protestants but indulging their revolutionary radicalism in secret.”

“It should be pointed out that when [in 18Th Century] attempts were made by the Illuminati, Jacobins and Frankists to infiltrate the Masons that their infiltration did not mean that they harbored any particular love for Freemasonry. On the contrary, they hated it with a passion and only wished to utilize the cover of Freemasonry as a means of spreading their revolutionary doctrines and to provide a place where they could covertly meet without arousing suspicion.”

Protocol 5.4 “The only society known to us which would be capable of competing with us in these arts, might be that of the Jesuits. But we have managed to discredit these in the eyes of the stupid mob [the people] as being a palpable organization, whereas we ourselves have kept in the background, reserving our organization as a secret.”

“The Frankists today [1971] no longer call themselves by that name. The Organization has grown into an international group labeled by outsiders as the Cult of the All-Seeing Eye.”

Protocol 1.8 “Politics have nothing in common with morals. A ruler governed by morals is not a skilled politician, hence he is not firm on his throne. He who wants to rule must have recourse to cunningness and hypocrisy. The great human qualities of sincerity and honesty become vices in politics. They dethrone with more certainty than the bitterest enemy. These qualities have to be the attributes of the Gentile countries, but we are not in the least forced to be guided by them.”

In “Wise as Serpents” by Springmeier he details the Satanic creation of this new religion, the Masonic background of Jehovaha’s Witnesses founder William Taze Russell and the fact that Russell is a bloodline (See, “The Thirteen Bloodlines of the Illuminati by Springmeier) of the British Russell Illuminati making their money from Drug running to Hong Kong and China, a Russell creating the Sodomic Skull and Bones Society at Yale University and having Satanist Lord Bertrand Russell amongst their alumni.

Calvin’s previous name was Cohen as a Frankist Marrano Jew.

Protestants were founded as a counterveiling force against Catholicism, after the Siege of Cambrai in 1507, by the Satanic Venetians whose Drug Running, Banking and Slave trading Venetian Empire is in a direct line from the Satanic Babylonian Empire to the Drug Running, Banking and Slave trading Roman Empire. Venetian Agent Luther was under the aegis of Venetian Cardinal Contarini, who also was responsible for the founding of the Jesuits under Venetian Agent Loyola.

Christianity created by the Roman Piso Family?

There are many Religions prior to Christianity which use the same Myths as Christianity.

The aura of Christ is the aura of the Sun, Mithras. “Not the Spanish Inquisition!!”
– Monty Python.

Another example is the creation of older religions like Judaism and Islam. When the Satanic Babylonians created Judaism and Islam they added pain in order to split the minds of the adherents at birth. The genital mutilation of babies will accomplish that sub personality split off from the normal mind at the age the trauma was performed.

Circumcision is the key to mind control. Monty Python’s, “Life of Brian” got it right when the reply to, “Why do you do that” is always, “It is written…” The technology of Trauma Based mind control with the addition of drugs and hypnotism to infil-trait the trauma split minds of those who must be controlled further, later, and more completely, is a Satanic secret from before the time of Babylon – “The Illuminati formula to create a completely mind controlled slave” by Springmeier.

Originally Judaism was invented to create a group of hard head terrorists to protect the right flank of the Babylonian Empire. Today it is the, “Arc of Crisis” maintaining control of the petroleum riches for the British and Anglo-American Empires.

Islam was created “During the time of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) circumcision was done for boys at the time of their Aqiqah (It’s a traditional celebration for the birth of a child which involves the sacrifice of an animal in thanks to Allah.) as reported in al-Bayhaq.”

Rent-a mob utilises mind split armies to follow the Arab Spring destabilising countries like, Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Syria, Ukraine, Russia, Uighur China, after which Rockefeller (a branch of the Rothschilde family) funded NATO  and UN finish them off.

Rabbi Marvin Antelman ex-communicated Henry Kissinger from Judaism in the 1974 Rabbinic Council for his ties with the Council on Foreign Relationship and as the United States Secretary of State sought to destroy Israel during the Yom Kippur War of 1976 and to this day, Rabbi Antelman continues to expose the criminal activities of these Jewish Sabbateans.

It was Rabbi Antelman, who has been the most profound voice exposing the satanic roots of the Sabbateans.  With great deliberation, he exposed the insidious evil that the Sabbateans were committing to destroy the orthodox Jewish people all around the world.  It was also Antelman’s most famous protégé, the Jewish investigative reporter and author, Barry Chamish who BibleSearchers has used in the past for his investigative studies on the corruption and evil within the Labor Zionists of Israel

In the following article, Barry Chamish documents the insidious evil the Sabbatean Jews have committed upon the orthodox Jewish people.  It will be this exposé taken from the written manuscript of a speech Chamish gave just before the expulsion of the 10,000 Jewish orthodox farmers, nurserymen and families from Gush Katif at Gaza that will be the foundation of this manuscript.  Part of this exposé will be Ariel Sharon, as the Prime Minister of the Labor Zionist government of the State of Israel in 2005, who exiled his own Jewish orthodox people, for the Labor Zionist government of the State of Israel.   What we will learn he created thousands of Jewish refugees, of which a majority of productive farm families are still refugees within their own land of Israel.  We given credit to the brave and intrepid Barry Chamish for his speech titled, “Shabtai Tzevi, Labor Zionism and the Holocaust” that is now in book form by the same name.

It was the Sabbateans who were the first to believe with all their hearts that the messianic era would be instituted when Jews would systematically begin breaking every law of the Torah and defy their judgments by the God of Israel.  Their era of the messiah never came to their expectations in the 17th century.

In fact, Mehmed IV the Sultan of Turkey (1648-1687) in September 1666 had Shabbatai Tzevi arrested.  For awhile he was allowed to have his own royal court in prison until he was given the ultimatum and a promise.  If the rabbi would give up his Judaism and his Torah, renounce Judaism, and convert to Islam, the Sultan would relinquish his sentence of a “long, tortuous death”.  To the amazement of the orthodox Jews, not only did he convert to Islam, but he twisted his interpretations of the Torah and took a large percentage of Judaism into Islam with him. Yet, a problem existed, soon may of the followers became crushed or disillusioned with Sabbatean theology and returned back to Orthodox Judaism.

Jacob Frank, the Islamic Dolmeh Emissary to Europe

Even so, a larger group of Jews did convert to Islam and became a cult in Turkey called the Dolmeh Cult, for it was they, who proclaimed, “We infiltrate Islam and other religions, but keep our Sabbatean beliefs with us at all times.” And to this day, the Dolmeh continue to infiltrate into other religions and cults to our modern era.

At the time while Shabbatai Tzevi was alive, it was the Turkish cult that were called the Dolmeh that lay dormant until the years surrounding the 1770s when Jacob Frank, a European Sabbatean who had lived and studied with the Dolmeh Turks, returned to Europe and spread a new messianic heresy across the continent of Europe. This time, the target was not just to the Jewish people but to the Lost Tribes of the House of Israel who had populated and now claimed Europe to be their own homeland.

With the inward desire that power, greed, and control rules, Yacov (Jacob) Frank who first went to the elite of the European countries and became a darling in the courts of the royalty.   As was written by BibleSearchers Reflections in the subarticle titled, “Jacob Frank and the Jewish Alliance with the Illuminati and the Rothschilds” we read:

“The time of the end did not come and the millennial kingdom did not arrive.  The works and studies of Shabbatai Zevi went underground.  Fifty years later, Yakov ben Judah Leib Frankovich (1726-1791) was born to a Jewish rabbi in Podolia in old Poland in the region of modern Ukraine.  From Poland he traveled to the Middle East as a cloth merchant.  There in Turkey he was initiated into the secret Shabbatean rites of Donmeh Shabbataism.  When he returned to the Ashkenazi Polish Jews they thought he was a Turkish Sephardi Jew and called him frenk, which in Yiddish means a Sephardi Jew.

He soon assumed a new family name, ‘Frank’.   At the age of twenty nine (1755) Jacob Frank returned to Poland; he had been fully indoctrinated into the mystical anti-Torah, anti-Talmudic teachings of mystical Shabbataism.  He transmitted his teachings to central Europe.  He posed as an orthodox Sephardi Jew from whence came his name, Frank, which in Jewish Ashkenazi Yiddish means a Sephardi. There he founded the heretical Jewish sect called Frankists.”

Now accepted by the Sephardi Jews in Poland, Jacob Frank convinced the Roman Catholic bishop of his province in Poland that his Sabbatean group was against the Jewish  and were not Jews, but were allies with the Roman Catholic Church in suppressing the Jews. Within his Catholic diocese, the bishop offered Jacob Frank and his followers protection from the Jews.  In verification and support of the Roman Catholic Jewish suppression by the Roman Catholics, there suddenly erupted numerous book burnings until all the Jewish Talmuds were destroyed in this Polish diocese.

This act was impressive to his Catholic benefactors for the Catholic hierarchy now felt that they had legitimate allies with the former Jewish Frankists.  With the verification of their evil deeds, the Frankists were able to establish a power base in Poland from which to spread their seeds of destruction.  What was even more important, they were now financed by the Roman Catholic Church. What the bishop did not know was that his allies that had now become official Roman Catholics were still living dual lives and in their duplicity, within this province of Poland, sexual orgies became the “purification of the soul” and secretly during the Purim festivals, this day became an annual wife-swapping event for hidden Frankists.  They not only debased their new Catholic religion but they also debased their own spiritual heritage in Judaism.

Suddenly the new wave of Catholic conversions came under the ministry of Jacob Frank and the Sabbateans as hundreds and even thousands of Jews were baptized in huge ceremonies.  What a revival these were. In one giant baptism ceremony, Jacob Frank officiated with the baptism of 5000 Jews into Jesuit Illuminati Catholicism but in secret they knew themselves as Frankists not necessarily Roman Catholic Christians. With thousands of new converts under his control, Jacob Frank began to organize them into underground or clandestine cells of small and separated groups of whom only he knew and controlled. To the Frankists, this Christian conversion was only an interlude, an intermediate growth stage into the future when the final messianic era would be revealed.

“Jacob Frank soon began to have direct revelations from heaven and admonished his followers to convert to Christianity.  They began to practice an underground religion that was anti-Torah and like Shabbatai Zevi and Nathan of Gaza engaged in sexual activities forbidden by Torah.  The halakhah of Torah was abandoned for a higher wisdom or knowledge.  From the midst of Luria’s Kabbalah which was based on the Mosaic Torah, the Frankists claimed a new wisdom, the ‘Torah of emanations’ or the Christian Cabbala which was anti-Torah.

As such the Shabbateans and the Frankists corrupted the Jewish prophetic idea of the emanations of God in the TaNaKh (Old Testament) and instead of subjecting themselves to the emanations of the Almighty by their covenantal relationship with God and obeying His commandments; they reproduced a new ‘Torah of emanations’ which they could control.  They took the spirit of the “little horn” of Daniel the prophet and in essence proclaimed that they ‘were like God’.

This Christian conversion was to be an intermediate growth stage to the future and final messianic religion.   In 1759, the influence of Frankists caught the eye of the Polish nobility when a large number of Jews converted to Frankism and performed a spectacular ceremony with the sacred rites of mass baptism at Lvov, Poland (L’viv, Ukraine). The Catholic Church filed charges against Jacob Frank and he was imprisoned for the next thirteen years (1760-1773).

As soon as Jacob Frank was released from prison, he left the country of Poland and emigrated to Bruno, Austria (now Brno, Czech Republic) where his works caught the eye of the Catholic benefactor, Maria Theresa, the archduchess of Austria.   There in the court of Maria Theresa, Jacob Frank was hired to be the Roman Christian spokesperson to the Jews.

Maria Theresa (1717-1780) was the Archduchess regnant of Austria, and also the Queen Regnant of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.  By her marriage to Francis I of Lorraine, the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and the last member of the House of the Habsburgs, Maria Theresa, upon the Emperor’s death in the year of 1765, became also became the Dowager Queen of the Holy Roman Empire, for she co-ruled with her son, Joseph who became the Emperor in that same year.

Mary Theresa was an energetic and capable ruler, and she was not only a devout Catholic but within her realm, she became an economic, educational, agricultural, and military reformer.  Her conflicts with the Kingdom of Prussia led her countries into the Seven Year War (1756-1763) and later the War of the Bavarian Succession.

It was into the royal court of the Viennese Archduchess that Jacob Frank arrived in the year of 1773, only three years before the signing of the Declaration of Independence in America.  Under the royal protection of Maria Theresa, Frank was also planting the seeds of insurrection and international intrigue.  Secretly Jacob Frank sent secret emissaries to the archbishop of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Tsar of Russia. He wanted them to assist him in the overthrow of Poland and the Polish Catholic Church. Within the Frankist cells, Frank had also taken the role of a messiah, like Shabbatai Tzevi.  He even established his own miniature royal court where this Jewish Messiah now turned Roman Catholic specifically selected twelve female disciples who were his concubines and twelve male disciples who were to be his emissaries.

The Archduchess of Vienna was no fool and soon began to suspect that Frank was not a Christian but a Jew in Christian clothing. Excommunicated earlier by the Jewish rabbis, later imprisoned by the Polish Catholics, he finally was expelled from Poland and Vienna.  At the age of sixty (1786), Jacob Frank moved to a small German village, Offenbach, where in luxury as the “Baron of Offenbach” he spent the last five years of his life. There, Jacob Frank held his own court of 600 attendees to the small village of Offenbach near Frankfurt, Germany.  The greatest of mysteries that with the loss of the largess of the Austrian Dowager Maria Theresa in Vienna, who were the new benefactors that came to Jacob Frank’s aid?

The Frankist, Jesuit, Rothschild Revolution in Europe and America

“I care not what puppet is placed on the throne of England to rule the Empire, …
The man that controls Britain’s money supply controls the British Empire.
And I control the money supply.”  – Baron Nathan Mayer de Rothschild (1777-1836)

“Gentlemen, I have had men watching you for a long time and I am convinced that you have used the funds of the bank to speculate in the breadstuffs of the country. When you won, you divided the profits amongst you, and when you lost, you charged it to the bank. You tell me that if I take the deposits from the bank and annul its charter, I shall ruin ten thousand families. That may be true, gentlemen, but that is your sin! Should I let you go on, you will ruin fifty thousand families, and that would be my sin! You are a den of vipers and thieves.”    – Attributed to President Andrew Jackson, who in 1836 forced the closing of the Second Bank of the U.S. by revoking its charter.

“The money powers prey upon the nation in times of peace. And conspire against it in times of adversity. It is more despotic than a monarchy, more insolent than autocracy, And more selfish than bureaucracy. It denounces as public enemies, all who question it’s methods or throw light upon it’s crimes. I have two great enemies, the Southern Army in front of me and the Bankers in the rear. Of the two, the one at my rear is my greatest foe… Corporations have been enthroned and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money powers of the country will endeavor to prolong it’s reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until the wealth is aggregated in the hands of a few, and the Republic is destroyed.   – President Abraham Lincoln

American Civil War

By the year of 1786, the German city of Frankfurt was the official headquarters of Adam Weishaupt, the founder of the Bavarian Order of the Illuminate. Trained as a Roman Catholic Jesuit, Adam Weishaupt became a protégé of Ignacio López de Loyola (1491-1556) the founder of the Society of Jesus who are known today as the Jesuits.  Loyola later became the first Superior General, a powerful political and spiritual force that is today known as the Black (Hidden) Pope who controls the most powerful intelligence organization in the world.

In the year of 1491, San Ignacio de Loyola was born in the Basque province of Guipuzcoa, Spain to a wealthy family of Jewish Marranos. His first entry, as a young man, was into a Jewish Illuminati Order in Spain while serving actively in the Roman Catholic Church.  Wounded permanently in battle, Loyola’s life turned to one of personal holiness. He went to Paris and there became a priest and in 1539, he moved to Rome where the “Jesuit Order” was given birth.

Joseph Johann Adam Weishaupt, on the other hand was born on February 6, 1748 in the city of Ingolstadt in the German state of Bavaria. His father was a professor in the University of Ingolstadt.  It was in the year of 1773 that two important events happened. The young “Adam” now educated as a Jesuit but was raised as a secret Sabbatean Jew, broke his allegiance with the Jesuit society amazing in the same year which Pope Clemens XVI dissolved the Jesuit order. Did he have inside information, we do not know. Within three years, in the year of 1776, a few months before the American Revolution and the Signing of the Declaration of Independence, the Bavarian Order of the Illuminate was formed. What little is known was that Adam Weishaupt came from a Jewish family that had converted to Roman Catholicism during the same era after the messianic revival of Shabbatai Tzevi in 1666.

The relationship between the Jesuits, Adam Weishaupt and the Bavarian Order of the Illuminati was collaborated with the testimony of Eric Jon Phelps in the article titled, “The Black Pope – The Most Powerful Man in the World” which he wrote:

“From the Jesuit College of Ingolstadt is said to have issued the sect known as ‘The Illuminati of Bavaria’ founded by Adam Weishaupt. Its nominal founder, however, seems to have played a subordinate though conspicuous role in the organization of this sect.” [Occult Theocracy, Lady Queenborough, originally published in 1933]

On May 1, 1776, the Order of the Illuminati was officially founded in the old Jesuit stronghold of Bavaria. The Company would now use the Jewish House of Rothschild to finance the French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon the Freemason with his Jesuit-trained advisor, Abbe Sieyes. In spite of the historical writings of the Jesuit Abbe Barruel, who blamed the Rothschild’s and Freemasonry for the Revolution, it was the Society of Jesus that used these very tools to carry out the Revolution and punish the monarchs who dared to expel the Jesuits from their dominions. The Jesuits, having been expelled from the Spanish Empire, found refuge in Corsica. From there they raised up their great avenger, Napoleon Bonaparte.”

In fact the “Illuminate” as an official body has been around over four hundred years before Adam Weishaupt founded the Bavarian Order of the Illuminate.  It was first founded in 1492 by the “Marranos” or “Crypto Jews” and known as the Alumbrado. Out of the forced conversions and severe persecutions in Spain and Portugal as early as 1391, hundreds of thousands of Jews were forced by the threat of death to convert to Roman Catholic Christianity.  Then in the year of 1492 the Jews were expelled from Spain by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.  On that very day the edict began for the Jewish expulsion, the 9th of Av, Christopher Columbus, now known to be a Kabbalist Jew “sailed the ocean blue” to find the watery road to the New World.

Meyer Amschel came from a German Jewish family where he had rabbinic training to become a Jewish rabbi. He took the name of Rothschild and established a banking house in the German city, Frankfurt am Main about the year of 1764.  Today the Rothschild International Banking Houses are believed to be a major player in the international global crisis that swept the world in the years of 2008-2009 and destined to be a controlling interest in the soon to rise World Federation of Nations.

And so here arrives Jacob Frank to the region of Frankfurt, Germany, the year of 1786.  The American colonies had already declared their independence from Great Britain in 1776.   The 13 American colonies, now recognized as the Tribe of Manasseh that was the 13th tribe of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, fought their Revolutionary War of Independence between the years of 1775-1783.

Ten years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence, a new alliance was formed in Frankfurt, Germany. These were revolutionary times.  What was erupting in Europe quickly was transmitted to America.  The seeds of rebellion and the desire for independence and autonomy made the Masonic leadership of the Continental Congress a funnel to soak in “ideas of change”.  Today we see the 2008-9 economic revolution erupting around the world as 44th President of the United States, the newly elected Black Mason, probably the first non-American President, Barak Hussein Obama riding into the White House on a platform of “change”.  He is now heralded in many diverse sectors of the world as the “Messiah Obama” and the “King of the World”.

If we could see behind the inter-dimensional veil and behold the “Hand” of the Divine, would we see the finger of God, who was guiding each of these vast earth changing movements in the moments of their birth?  As the United States of America and the Order of the Illuminate were now approaching their 10th birthday we would now know that Adam Weishaupt was only 38 years old, Amschel Rothschild was 42 years old and Jacob Frank was 60 years old.

There was no doubt that Meyer Amschel Rothschild was the financier.  His desire was to gain control of the world’s financial marketplace. Between the Jesuits, that were founded by Jewish bloodlines and the Sabbateans that were now underground Catholics also of Jewish bloodlines, they both would become the agents that could bring the “money” to the House of Rothschild, the best example of the ancient Jewish Sadducees.

Adam Weishaupt already had the structural foundation for an international organization and Jacob Frank was quite adept at laying the mystical foundations.  He provided the underground cells for the future subversive acts by the Order of the Illuminati.  Their primary goal was to roll back the tide of the Protestant Reformation and to bring the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church back into full control of religious and spiritual life in Europe and the Americas. Working hand in hand, the Illuminati and the Jesuits were a powerful coalition seeking to return these two regions back into the fold of Rome.

As Barry Chamish wrote in the article titled, “Kerry, Gaza and the New Sabbatean Holocaust, pg 2”, we learn:

“Frankfurt at the time was the headquarters of the Jesuit, Adam Weishaupt, founder of the Illuminati, as well as Rothschild Brothers’ financial empire.  This is worth repeating; Frankfurt was the birthplace of both the Illuminati and the Rothschild Financial Empire. When Jacob Frank entered the city, the alliance between the two had already begun. Weishaupt provided the conspiratorial resources of the Jesuit Order, while the Rothschilds contributed the money.  What was missing was a means to spread the agenda of the Illuminati and the Frankists added with their network of agents throughout the Christian and Islamic worlds.

Sometime between the years of 1785 and 1786, according to Chamish, the subversive activities of the Illuminati were discovered when a satchel was discovered in the possession of a man who fell off his horse and died.  The satchel included the plans for the French Revolution.  The Bavarian Order of the Illuminati was banned in Bavaria and this ban swept the European states  The Illuminati went underground. It took a fourth party by the name of Franz Thomas von Schoenfeld who under the assumed name of Moses Dobruschka who would take this conspiracy to its final level – invade the upper echelon of the hierarchy of the British and Scottish Freemasonry.

“Under the assumed name of Junius Frey, Moses Dobruschka (aka. Franz Thomas von Schoenfeld) became a member of the Jacobins, and took the mystical teaching of Shabbatai Zevi to the top of the British and Scottish Freemasonry lodges.  The Scottish rite’s, known as the Continental Masonry, origins were in European Masonry practiced in the mid-17th century.  The constitutions of the Scottish Rite were formulated in 1761, 1762 and 1786.  The influence of these rites went global along the trails of British Imperialism and practiced today in Europe, North and South America, Asia, Africa, Australia and New Zealand.” (Scottish Rite Masons)

By the year of the constitutional formulations of the Scottish Rites (1786), the corrupted ideology of Sabbatean false-Jewish mysticism had now been imbedded within Scottish Freemasonry. Is it surprising that ten out of the twenty signers that left their signatures upon the Declaration of Independence were Freemasons?  Scholars have proved that eight Signers of the fifty six signers of the Constitution of the United States in the year of 1787 were Masons but as many as thirty signers may have been Masons. Many of the signers of the United States Bill of Rights (1789) were Scottish Freemasons?  Is it also of interest that the 1st ever Masonic Inaugural Ball ever held was in honor of President Barak Hussein Obama, the 44th President of the United States on January 9, 2009?  Is it of interest that President Barak Hussein Obama is a 32nd degree Prince Hall Freemason who was nurtured the by Chicago based Nation of Islam and the ancient Knight Templar Masons?

It is surprising that the Anti-Messiah, according to the Muslims, called the Dajjal, according to the Islamic saying (Hadiths) of Muhammad the Prophet is reputed to have “One Eye”.  As we look at the back of the United States Dollar, we are reminded that the “Cult of the All Seeing Eye” is a part of the very foundation of America, the homeland of the Tribe of Manasseh. Above the Pyramid and the All Seeing Eye, we read, “Annuit Coeptis” (God has Favored our Understanding) and below, “Novus Ordo Seclorum” (The New Order for the Ages). Then we are again reminded that the cultic forces of the Sabbatean-Jesuit-Illuminati were there and have been there all the time, and that reality has now become transparent here at the time of the end.

The Rothschild – Rockefeller Connection

“I want to own nothing and control everything” — J D Rockefeller
“The secret to success is to own nothing, but control everything.” — Nelson Rockefeller

“The drive of the Rockefellers and their allies is to create a one-world government combining Supercapitalism and Communism under the same tent, all under their control…. Do I mean conspiracy? Yes I do. I am convinced there is such a plot, international in scope, generations old in planning, and incredibly evil in intent.”
— Larry P. McDonald, US Congressman, 1976, killed in the Korean Airlines 747 that was shot down by the Soviets

“The real menace of our republic is this invisible government which like a giant octopus sprawls its slimy length over city, state and nation. Like the octopus of real life, it operates under cover of a self created screen…. At the head of this octopus are the Rockefeller Standard Oil interests and a small group of powerful banking houses generally referred to as international bankers. The little coterie of powerful international bankers virtually run the United States government for their own selfish purposes. They practically control both political parties.” –John F. Hylan, 1922, then mayor of New York City

Through the 18th and 19th centuries, the two major centers for the Illuminati and the Sabbateans were Frankfurt and London.  These two power centers for the global forces in Europe seeking world domination would in 1978 become code-named by the newly nominated Pope John Paul II as the Golden Internationale.

Frankfurt was the virtual financial capital of the world and London was then the political capital of the British Empire and the occultist capital of Scottish Freemasonry.  During the 19th century the economic and intelligence highway between London and Frankfurt was heavily traveled, for here were the economic and geo-political forces that were changing the world during the height of the British Empire.

First we see the apostate Jews of Germany, Karl Marx and Frederick Engel moving back and forth between Britain and Germany as the “Communist Manifesto” was written.  This Manifesto, according to Chamish, was used brilliantly by the Jesuits in the early 17th century in the South American country of Paraguay.  It was there that the Indians that were not killed were enslaved in communes.  For 158 years, more than 150,000 Guarani Indians were enslaved in 30 concentration camps called “reducciones”.  As international attention was highlighted upon these evil acts, the citizens of Europe were incensed until the Spanish king, Carl III issued a royal decree that drove out the Jesuits from all Spanish colonies. The conceptual breeding grounds for the godless activities of the Sabbateans were established first in Germany and then put into international political movements and organizations coming out of the capital of the British Empire.

The political movements of the Sabbateans can be seen in their maturity today in the international military crusades that were pursued by the Jewish Sabbatean Neo-Cons of the Bush administration starting in the War against Terror in Afghanistan and Iraq during the seven years between the years of 2001-2008.  The spiritual father of the American Neo-Cons was Leo Strauss of the University of Chicago who as a German Jew, according to Chamish, “inspired the people who are raping and pillaging Iraq right now (2004)… for “young Americans are dying for Sabbateans…in the war in Iraq”.   Yet, these are the same forces that are shifting their military sights and withdrawing out of Iraq and returning back to Afghanistan now in the Obama Administration.

With new alliances that appear to be forming between Pakistan and the Taliban, the world may soon be facing a Nuclear Al Qaeda or Taliban.   The Pashtun Tribes of Afghanistan that are prophetically known as the “Bani-Israel” Lost Tribes of the House of Israel are prophetically one of God’s “Battle Axes” destined to destroy empires and nations. God’s final judgment is let to be seen in this war.

There was one element of the infiltrations by the Sabbateans into the nations of the world that has remained elusive; America and the Rockefellers.  The Rockefeller agents of the House of Rothschild did not have any political influence in America prior to the middle of the 19th century.  In the 1850s, the House of Rothschild sent John Jacob Astor and Jacob Schiff as emissaries from their headquarters in Frankfurt, Germany to the United States. About the same time, out of the loins of the Frankfurt Illuminati-Sabbateans there arrived during the Civil War a Rothschild agent from Frankfurt called Judah Benjamin that became the financial advisor to the government of the Southern Confederate States of the United States.  Soon the Rothschilds had control of the banking industry in the Southern Confederate States of America.

The goal of the Rothschild’s emissaries, John Jacob Astor and Jacob Schiff, were to take over the America financially for the Illuminati and the Sabbateans. The role of the Illuminati was much more visible than their elusive Jewish Sabbatean sponsors and agents. The first mission of Astor and Schiff was to finance the robber barons who were the major businessmen and bankers who dominated their industries.  By the use of unfair and unethical business practices, they amassed huge fortunes. These barons included;  John Jacob Astor (real estate and fur) from New York City, Andrew Carnegie (railroad and steel) from Pittsburgh, John D. Rockefeller (railroads) with Standard Oil, Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroads), Edward Henry Harriman (railroads) in New York, John Pierpont Morgan (corporate financer and industrial consolidator, and numerous others.

With the financing from the Rothschilds, they were promised wealth, power, control in exchange for the promotion of the Rothschild’s financial interests and the Illuminati’s agenda. This was a mutual relationship that benefited both parties.

It would be in the year of 1922 that J.P. Morgan and John D. Rockefeller created the Council of Foreign Relations (CFR).  It became a front for the Sabbatean-Illuminati under the control of the Rothschild Dynasty.  The purpose of this organization, according to Chamish was to overthrow the government of the United States and make it into a country controlled by a global unified order that was controlled by the now almost three hundred and fifty year old consortium of the Rothschild’s global financial empire, Weishaumpt’s Jesuit Illuminati, and the Frankist’s Sabbateans.

During these same years the Sabbateans were also trying to overthrow Judaism and by overthrowing their Torah and the God in which they served pacify and transform all covenant keeping Jews into anti-Torah Sabbatean Jews.  To corrupt the Jews they sought to corrupt Judaism. Soon out of Germany came the Reform Judaism Movement.  Later through Germany and Britain came the Conservative Judaism Movement.

The goal was to dilute Judaism and the spiritual power of the orthodox Jew would be transformed by spiritual elements foreign to ancient Judaism. The problem existed that Orthodox Jews did not cooperate.  They did not rebel, neither did they revolt. They just did not choose to sin against HaShem, their own God. With the defeat of the conspiracy that by twisting the Jewish religion into a religion that would negate their love for the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, it only emboldened the Orthodox Jew to yearn more for his home in the Promised Land in Israel.

So, a new plan was devised called “Zionism”.  Zionism, according to Chamish, was founded by the Sabbateans with the international assistance of the British Freemasons, to take over the land of Israel and convert it into a Sabbatean state.  As Chamish confesses, “Israel was conceived in utter sin!”

The Jewish people were given a “holocaust” by their Sabbatean and Illuminati masters, because that is what it took to force them to go to the land of Israel. In spite of the concentration camps and the ovens at Dachau, the Jewish people still kept being moral.  This was a concept that was hard for religious Christians and western secularists to understand how not to bargain their core beliefs with the “devil”.  It was also hard for them to differentiate between the Sabbatean Jew and the authentic Orthodox Covenanted Jew and realize that the authentic Jewish believers in God are not their enemy and neither were they the killers of the Jewish messiah Yahshua, known to Christians as Jesus Christ.

The same battles that were waged by the Sadducees of the Temple High Priest family of Ananias and the Pharisees of Shammai against the covenanted Jews during the days when Yahshua (Jesus) was living in Galilee and Judea are being waged today.  The “virtual reality battle” of the Oslo Accord trying to give up tangible assets of “Land” in the Nation of Israel to the Palestinians with a mere promise of peace is a war “between the good and decent vast majority of Israel and these Sabbateans ruling them.”

The Labor Zionist Movement of 1880 to 1917

Einstein: What Makes Me Happiest – a Jewish State in Palestine
Letter to Paul Ehrenfest, dated March 22, 1919 in Physics Today , April 2005
Translated and annotated by Bertram Schwarzschild

“I’m very disillusioned with politics right now. Those countries [the Allied powers] whose victory I thought, during the war, would be by far the lesser evil, now show themselves to be an only slightly lesser evil. On top of that, there’s the thoroughly dishonorable domestic politics: the reactionaries with all their shameful deeds in repulsive revolutionary disguise.

One doesn’t know where to look to take pleasure in human striving. What makes me happiest is the [prospective] realization of a Jewish state in Palestine. It seems to me that our brethren [Stammgenossenen] really are nicer [sympathische] (at least less brutal) than these awful [scheuslichen] Europeans. Maybe it can only get better if the Chinese alone survive; they lump all Europeans together as ‘bandits.”

If it was hard to take the morality away from a Jew and get him to blaspheme his own God, it was also hard to get the Orthodox Jews to move to Israel. They could not see any purpose for doing so. Their God had taken the land away from them because they believed of their sins and defiance of their temple and political leaders.  They expected to wait until the Messiah returned to tell them to return.

To change the equation, the Sabbateans after the 1880s began to make like miserable for the average orthodox Jew.  First there came the European pogroms of the 1880s, with the special assistance of the Roman Catholic Jesuits, many of which were Sabbateans Jews. The Jesuits provided the militaristic communities and cells called “Cossacks” and the Sabbateans provided the Communists with Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin.  Life in Russia became a living hell and this time the Jews did leave.

Over two million of the Jews left, but they did not go to “Roman Palestine” but to America.  So the Illuminati-Sabbateans had to conspire against honorable God-fearing Jews and convince the President of the United States to ban large scale immigration by the Jews to America.  Every other nationality was welcome, but not the Jew. It was the Sabbateans’ intent to shut the doors to America so that the Jews would be diverted to “Roman Palestine”.

The Zionist Movement was then formed.  As we would guess, it was formed in Vienna, German, the ancient hunting grounds of Jacob Frank. The Sabbatean movement formulated its first mission and statement of purpose by Sabbatean Jews such as Natan Birmbaum (1864-1937) and Peretz Smolekin.

Nathan was a Viennese Jewish writer and journalist that was born to an Eastern European Jewish family.   While he was attending the University of Vienna, he founded Kadimah, the first Jewish Zionist student association. He went on to become the Secretary-General of the Zionist Organization and became the Zionists leading spokesman. He quickly became disillusioned and soon left the Zionist movement. The word in which he personally coined; “Zionist”, “Zionism” (1890), and “political Zionism” (1892) he learned to loath as they were transformed into the “iconic images” of the power brokers of the Sabbateans.  They quickly transformed the idealism of Zionism into a “party machine”.

Peretz (Peter) on the other hand was a Russian Jewish novelist whose life was the life of a ghetto Jew who was first a rationalist and later a mystic.  He settled in Odessa as an antinomian (“against the law (Torah) which he immortalized in his novels and became known as the Jewish Thackeray.  Neither of these two, though, had the charisma to charm, convince, extol, or to tempt the European Jews to move to the Holy Land. But within ten years there arose a new Viennese reporter, Theodore Herzl who did have a magnetic personality and the charisma needed by the Sabbatean Zionists.

Theodore Herzl (1860-1904) became the leader of the Zionists movement and according to his bios, he wrote the book called “Der Judenstatt” or “The Jewish State”.  This fact was a farce, according to Chamish, for Herzl was suppose to have written it in the summer the year after the Dreyfus Affair, but there was one problem, he was not in Paris the summer of 1895.  From all appearance, the book was written by a ghost writer. As Chamish noted, Herzl earlier wrote plays and it was obvious that he was a “bad writer”. But Herzl’s charisma made him an “amazing” leader, so Herzl received a book reputedly written by him.

Herzl had a sincere idea to buy “Palestine” legitimately from Abdül Hamid II, the Sultan of Turkey.  The World Zionist Organization liked the idea and sent Theodor Herzl in the year of 1912 to negotiate with the cash poor Ottoman government to purchase Palestine that was the private possession of the crown.  The Sultan refused. If the plan had worked, Chamish was convinced that World War I would have been adverted and the British would not have had to fight the Ottoman Turks to take possession of “Roman Palestine”.

So Theodore went to Britain with alternative plans. If the Jews could not have a safe home in Palestine, the Jews could be moved to Eastern Africa in Uganda or some other empty land in the Dark Continent. It was a noble move, but it was not destined to be approved by the God of Israel whose only agents to achieve His Sovereign Will, the Sabbateans were “wolves in sheep’s clothing”,  They wanted to take possession of the land of Israel and not Uganda. It was the will of the God of Israel that His chosen land Israel, that was still encumbered with its Roman name, Palestine would come back into the possession of the Jewish people as He promised through the prophets that He would do.

With his failed mission, Theodore Herzl’s days were numbered.  Shortly afterwards, at the young age of 43 years, he died. The story that circulated throughout the Jewish communities was that Herzl’s heart stopped because he worked so hard for the Jewish people. The truth was that Herzl entered a Paris Sanatorium for unknown reasons, stayed there two weeks and never came out. According to Chamish:

“I have no problem believing that he was murdered in there, no problem at all. This is the pattern of these Sabbateans: they eliminate people they don’t like. They eliminate people who threaten them. But, I can’t prove that (Herzl’s suspicious death was murder) but obviously (the murder of Israeli’s Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin)’s (death) I can prove.”

The head of the Jewish Zionist Movement was replaced with a German educator called Chaim Weizman.  Chamish exclaims, “Words do not describe the damage this man has done to the world. Now, what we were told is that Chaim Weizmann took on the Zionist movement.  During World War I, he developed a way to make acetone from dried paint …and that process ‘saved the war.’ Now, I want you to know, I checked… There was a little factory built.  He was a chemist. Not one bomb in World War I used his method, not a one. And even so, the story we are told is: ‘The British were so (impressed about) this wonderful new way to make explosives, they gave him ‘Palestine’… This is the myth… you know. This is the myth that we have been raised with.”

It was in the year 1915 that the Zionist leader, Chaim Weizmann met British Prime Minister Lord Balfour.  An interesting conversation took place at that meeting, when Lord Balfour inquired of Chaim Weizmann as to the reasons why the Zionists had refused Great Britain’s offer of refuge for the Jewish people to live in Uganda.  Chaim responded: “Suppose I was to offer you Paris instead of London, would you take it?”  Balfour responded, “Dr. Weizmann, we have London.” And Weizmann responded, “That is true, but we had Jerusalem when London was still a marsh.” This event was two years before the official British proclamation, called the “Balfour Accord” that expressed the British Empire’s intent to seek international approval for an Israeli homeland in the land of “Roman Palestine”.

Now, Weizmann, according to a secondary document on the life of Albert Einstein becoming a supporter to the Zionist cause, Chaim Weizmann that affirmed the earlier remarks by Barry Chamish as to the pride of the leading spokesman for Zionism, Russian born professor of Biochemistry in Manchester, England, when it reported in “Albert Einstein’s Zionism”:

“Having made a crucial contribution to the British war effort (devising a way to synthesize acetone, a TNT ingredient, from cereals and horse chestnuts) Weizmann uses his good graces to lobby for a Jewish homeland in Palestine.”

The Zionist leader, Chaim Weizmann’s days were now over.  The fate of Ottoman Turkey lay in the decision not to sell the Land of Palestine to the Jewish Zionists, and the executioners of that fate lay in the hands of a group of Sabbatean Jews called “The Young Turks”. Before it was over the world would be engulfed in flames.

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9/11, JFK and The Global Collateral Accounts


On November 22nd, 1963, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, one of the most beloved and famous US president’s was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Though there are many theories as to who killed him, to get closer to the truth we must ask why he was killed. In any murder investigation, the victim’s enemies are often looked at first. In this respect, it was well known that Kennedy strongly opposed the military-industrial complex, which included The Federal Reserve and the C.I.A.

In a speech on April 27th, 1961 before the American Newspaper Publishers Association in New York City, Mr. Kennedy openly stated opposition to “secret societies, to secret oaths and to secret proceedings.”  He stated further opposition to a “ruthless conspiracy…a highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations.”

Creating considerable dissent with the status quo and more specifically with The Federal Reserve and C.I.A., Kennedy signed Executive Order 11110 into law on June 4th, 1963, which gave the president the right to issue gold-backed currency, and completely without permission from The Federal Reserve. But where was Kennedy going to receive such large amounts of gold to back a new Treasury note?

A Little History – Global Collateral Accounts 

In the 1930′s, royal Asian families had seen that some of their gold and silver holdings in Southeast Asia were being plundered by the Japanese and needed to do something about it. In 1938, the Chinese Kuomintang government sent 7 warships loaded with gold and silver to the US Federal Reserve for safekeeping. In return, the Chinese were given 60 year gold bonds–a subject we will return to further down. A few years later in 1944, the infamous Bretton Woods Conference took place in which the US, France and Britain were given a 50 year mandate to modernize and transform the world for the better. Backing this new global financial system that had just been set up was a now estimated 2 million metric tons of gold, held by this group of royal Asian families, which is also known as the Dragon Family.

By August 17th, 1945, President Soekarno of Indonesia had been elected “M1″ or Monetary Controller of this large cache of assets, granted under  United Nations Resolution MISA 81704, Operation Heavy Freedom. These assets are better known as the Global Collateral Accounts and were originally intended to be used for the modernization of the world through several humanitarian projects. The Dragon Family are the legitimate Depositors of these accounts.

By 1955, it was shown that the International Monetary Fund, which was also created at Bretton Woods, was not living up to its word and was instead serving only the interest of the banking and political elite. It was at this time that a growing alliance began to see that these funds were being used to fuel the Cold War tension and decided to strongly oppose the shady banking cabal.

By 1963, this alliance pooled their financial resources together to create the Green Hilton Memorial Agreement, which was signed by John F. Kennedy and President Skoearno and was finished on November 14, 1963. This agreement was to utilize the Global Collateral Accounts for global development and humanitarian projects (along with a new US Treasury Note, a new supernational/international note backed by gold and would bring an end to The Federal Reserve system and the CIA).

Just 8 days later, JFK was assassinated.    

A short time following Kennedy’s passing, President Soekarno was driven from power by way of a coup. By 1968, the Bush, Kissinger, Rockefeller and other influential families created a fake heir to the rights of the Global Collateral Accounts. Up until the writing of this article in November of 2015, these accounts have been illegally and fraudulently used by the central banking system.

The 9/11 Connection

In 1998, 60 years after the Federal Reserve Board and the Chinese swapped gold for gold bonds, the Chinese requested their gold back. After refusal from the Fed, the Chinese Kuomintang government followed with a lawsuit. The International Court of Justice ruled that the Fed needed to return the gold, which was later agreed upon by the Fed. The first payment was scheduled to be delivered September 12th, 2001.

Interestingly, on September 10th, 2011, former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld announced that 2.3 trillion dollars went missing from the Pentagon defense budget. Even more conspicuous, Cantor Fitzgerald Securities, the company that was handling the paper work for the gold to be delivered back to the Chinese, was inside One World Trade Center on floors 101-105. All 658 of their employees were murdered on that day as the towers fell and the gold was not returned to the Chinese.

The Monaco Accords, The Trillion Dollar Lawsuit and the BRICS

In August of 2011, representatives from 57 nations (none were invited from the West) came together off the coast of Monaco to create an alliance designed to legally take down the central banking cabal and create a new global financial system using the Global Collateral Accounts for many development and humanitarian projects.

Reports from Neil Keenan, who helped arrange this historic meeting and has been entrusted with protecting and restoring the legal rights back to the Dragon Family and settling the Global Collateral Accounts for the benefit of humanity, has stated that this Monaco meeting alliance has now swelled to 182 countries and is being spearheaded by the BRICS nations (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa).

Neil also filed a lawsuit in the Southern District of New York on November 23, 2011 to the tune of over a trillion dollars against the United Nations, the Office of International Treasury Control, Silvio Berlusconi, Ban Ki-Moon, the World Economic Forum and several others.

Since that time, Neil has withdrawn the suit (Obama’s economic advisor’s brother became the judge and he previously had never been a judge before) to refile in an even more effective jurisdiction and plans to do this in the very near future. This new lawsuit will be bigger and will expose the EU, the Federal Reserve and all the parties mentioned above, plus much more.

Neil Keenan has also filed liens and a Cease and Desist order against all twelve central banks in the U.S. and a Cease and Desist order on behalf of the Dragon Family against names like Queen Elizabeth II, Hilary Clinton, George Herbert Walker Bush, George W. Bush, David Rockefeller and several other well known names.

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Internationalist Elite, Gun Control and Genocide

The internationalist elite provoked the first world war in order to achieve several goals, including the revolutions in Russia and Germany and the destruction of the Ottoman Empire.

The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was over 38 million: over 17 million deaths and 20 million wounded, ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history. The total number of deaths includes about 11 million military personnel and about 7 million civilians.

In 1911, Turkey established gun control.

In late 1911, the Freedom and Accord Party (also known as the Liberal Union or Liberal Entente), with much of those staying in the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), favoring a generally nationalist and pro-centralization policy. In a year-long power struggle throughout 1912, Freedom Accord and the remaining members of the CUP vied for control of the Ottoman government, the year seeing a rigged election by the CUP and a military revolt by Freedom and Accord. The struggle between the two groups of Young Turks ended in January 1913, when the top leadership of the CUP seized personal power from Freedom and Accord in the Raid on the Sublime Porte. The subsequent CUP-led government was headed by interior minister and Grand Vizier Talaat Pasha. Working with him were war minister Enver Pasha and naval minister Djemal Pasha. These “Three Pashas”, as they came to be known, exercised absolute control over the Ottoman Empire from 1913 to 1918, bringing the country closer to Germany, signing the Ottoman–German Alliance to enter the Empire into World War I on the side of the Central Powers, and carrying out the Armenian Genocide.

The Armenian Genocide, also known as the Armenian Holocaust, and, traditionally by Armenians, as Medz Yeghern (“Great Crime”), was the Ottoman government’s systematic extermination of its minority Armenian subjects inside their historic homeland, which lies within the territory constituting the present-day Republic of Turkey.

The total number of people killed as a result has been estimated at between 800,000 and 1.5 million. Between 1915-1923, approximately half the Armenian population living in the Ottoman Empire, were killed in massacres or died as a consequence of military deportations, forced marches and mass starvations carried out by the Young Turks. The extermination of the Armenians coined the word “genocide”.

The starting date is conventionally held to be April 24, 1915, the day Ottoman authorities rounded up and arrested, subsequently executing, some 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Constantinople.

The Committee of Union and Progress, later known as the Young Turk movement, which was responsible for the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the genocide of Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians, belonged to a group called Donmeh.

Dönmeh refers to a group of crypto-Jews in the Ottoman Empire who, to escape the inferior condition of dhimmis, converted publicly to Islam, but were said to have retained their beliefs. The movement was historically centred in Salonica. The group originated during and soon after the era of Sabbatai Zevi, a 17th-century Jewish kabbalist who claimed to be the Messiah and eventually converted to Islam in order to escape punishment by the Sultan Mehmed IV. After Zevi’s conversion, a number of Jews followed him into Islam and became the Dönmeh. Since the 20th century, assimilated Dönmeh might have intermarried with other groups and most have assimilated into Turkish society.

The Doenmeh roots go back to the immense messianic crisis of the 1660s. Across the Jewish world, Shabbtai Tzvi, an Izmir-born kabbalist, was accepted as the promised redeemer of Israel. It was a turbulent time for Europe’s Jews, who were looking for deliverance in the wake of the devastating massacres in Ukraine and elsewhere. Tzvi declared himself the messiah in 1665, and prepared to lead the Jewish people to the Holy Land. He also told his followers that the Ottoman sultan would become his slave.

Approximately 75% of the Assyrian population in the Ottoman Empire, 750,000 people, and two-thirds of the entire Assyrian population worldwide were slaughtered during these years. The genocide is commonly known as “Seyfo” (which means sword in Assyrian), and is grouped with the concurrent Armenian Genocide and Greek Genocides. Turkey has yet to recognize the genocide.

450,000-900,000 Greeks were massacred by the Ottoman Empire. It was instigated by the government of the Ottoman Empire against the Greek population of the Empire and included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, summary expulsions, arbitrary executions, and destruction of Greek Orthodox cultural, historical and religious monuments. Denied by Turkey, but considered a genocide.

The internationalist elite planned to create a state in Palestine but the problem was that Palestine was under Ottoman rule. Founder of the Zionist movement, Theodor Herzl wanted to negotiate with the Ottoman Empire for Palestine, but he failed. The internationalist elite wanted to gain control over the Ottoman Empire and destroy it in order to free Palestine, therefore the crypto-Jews of the Donmeh group founded the Committee of Union and Progress under the guise of a secular Turkish nationalist movement.

Through Palestine, the internationalist elite wanted access to oil through the Mediterranean Sea from a pipeline to Iraq, and to gain the dollars from minerals in the Dead Sea. The British gave this land to them.

In 1928, Germany established gun control.

From 1918 to 1920, with the defeat of Germany in World War I, the nation was forced to accept a series of devastating reparations after signing the Treaty of Versailles. The defeated Weimar government agreed to payments it did not have the ability to make, which would eventually lead to the 1920s inflationary depression. The treaty had stipulations to disarm the government. Fearing inability to hold the state together during the depression, the German government adopted a sweeping series of gun confiscation legislation against the citizens prior to completely disarming the German military. Article 169 of the Treaty of Versailles explicitly targeted the state: “Within two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, German arms, munitions, and war material, including anti-aircraft material, existing in Germany in excess of the quantities allowed, must be surrendered to the Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers to be destroyed or rendered useless.”

In 1919, the German government passed the Regulations on Weapons Ownership, which declared that “all firearms, as well as all kinds of firearms ammunition, are to be surrendered immediately.” Under the regulations, anyone found in possession of a firearm or ammunition was subject to five years’ imprisonment and a fine of 100,000 marks.

On August 7, 1920, rising fears whether or not Germany could have rebellions prompted the government to enact a second gun-regulation law called the Law on the Disarmament of the People. It put into effect the provisions of the Versailles Treaty in regard to the limit on military-type weapons.

In 1928, after a near decade of hyperinflation destroyed the structural fabric of the society, a rapidly expanding three-way political divide between the conservatives, National Socialists, and Communists prompted the rapidly declining conservative majority to enact the Law on Firearms and Ammunition. This law relaxed gun restrictions and put into effect a strict firearm licensing scheme. Under this scheme, Germans could possess firearms, but they were required to have separate permits to do the following: own or sell firearms, carry firearms (including handguns), manufacture firearms, and professionally deal in firearms and ammunition. Furthermore, the law restricted ownership of firearms to “…persons whose trustworthiness is not in question and who can show a need for a (gun) permit.” This law explicitly revoked the 1919 Regulations on Weapons Ownership, which had banned all firearms possession.

The 1938 German Weapons Act, the precursor of the current weapons law, superseded the 1928 law. As under the 1928 law, citizens were required to have a permit to carry a firearm and a separate permit to acquire a firearm. But under the new law:

  • Gun restriction laws applied only to handguns, not to long guns or ammunition. The 1938 revisions completely deregulated the acquisition and transfer of rifles and shotguns, as was the possession of ammunition.”
  • The legal age at which guns could be purchased was lowered from 20 to 18.
  • Permits were valid for three years, rather than one year.
  • The groups of people who were exempt from the acquisition permit requirement expanded. Holders of annual hunting permits, government workers, and NSDAP (the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, aka the Nazi party) members were no longer subject to gun ownership restrictions. Prior to the 1938 law, only officials of the central government, the states, and employees of the German Reichsbahn Railways were exempted.
  • Manufacture of arms and ammunition continued to require a permit, with the revision that such permits would no longer be issued to Jews or any company part-owned by Jews. Jews were consequently forbidden from the manufacturing or dealing of firearms and ammunition.

Under both the 1928 and 1938 acts, gun manufacturers and dealers were required to maintain records with information about who purchased guns and the guns’ serial numbers. These records were to be delivered to a police authority for inspection at the end of each year.

On November 11, 1938 the Regulations Against Jews’ Possession of Weapons were promulgated by Minister of the Interior, Wilhelm Frick, effectively depriving all Jews living under the Third Reich of the right to possess any form of weapons including truncheons, knives, or firearms and ammunition. Before that, some police forces used the pre-existing “trustworthiness” clause to disarm Jews on the basis that “the Jewish population ‘cannot be regarded as trustworthy”.

From 1939 to 1945, 11-13 million people were exterminated.

World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history in absolute terms of total dead. Over 60 million people were killed, which was about 3% of the 1940 world population (est. 2.3 billion). World War II fatality statistics vary, with estimates of total dead ranging from 50 million to more than 80 million. The higher figure of over 80 million includes deaths from war-related disease and famine. Civilians killed totalled 50 to 55 million, including 19 to 28 million from war-related disease and famine. Total military dead: from 21 to 25 million, including deaths in captivity of about 5 million prisoners of war.

Sabbatean Jews became the enemies of the Torah Jews; only the Torah Jews were sent to the concentration camps of Hitler.

In the book “Adolf Hitler: Founder of Israel” (1974) author Heineke Kardel quotes German Jew Dietrich Bronder:

“Of Jewish descent, or being related to Jewish families were: the Leader and  Reichschancelor Adolf Hitler; his representatives the  Reichsminister Rudolf Hess; the Reichsmarshall Hermann Goering; the Reichsleader of the NSDAP Gregor Strasser,  Dr. Josef Goebbels, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, Heinrich  Himmler; the Reichsminister von Ribbentrop (who pledged close friendship with the famous Zionist Chaim Weizmann,  the first head of the State of Israel who died in 1952); von  Keudell; field commanders Globocnik (the Jewish  destructor); Jordan and Wilhelm Hube; the great SS-Leaders  Reinhard Heydrich, Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski and von  Keudell II, who also were active in the destruction of Jews.  (All of them were members of the secret Thule  Order/ Society) ”  (Bronder, Before Hitler Came, 1964)

Moreover, Churchill, FDR and Stalin were also Illuminati (i.e. Sabbatean-Frankist) Jews. The Second World War could have been contrived partly to fulfill Frank’s goal of exterminating the Jewish people.  Frankists may explain the presence of 150,000 part-Jewish soldiers in the German army.

Although there is no legal continuity between the Russian Empire and the modern Russian Federation, and the concept of genocide was only adopted in international law in the 20th century, on 5 July 2005 the Circassian Congress, an organization that unites representatives of the various Circassian peoples in the Russian Federation, called on Moscow first to acknowledge and then to apologize for Tsarist policies that Circassians say constituted a genocide. Their appeal pointed out that “according to the official tsarist documents more than 400,000 Circassians were killed, 497,000 were forced to flee abroad to Turkey, and only 80,000 were left alive in their native area.” Other sources give much higher numbers, totaling 1 million- 1.5 million deported and/or killed.[45] See also: Circassian Genocide

The Bolshevik leaders here, most of whom are Jews and 90 percent of whom are returned exiles, care little for Russia or any other country but are internationalists and they are trying to start a worldwide social revolution. —David R. Francis, U.S. Ambassador to Russia, 1918.

In 1929, the Soviet Union established gun control.

According to Russian government figures USSR losses within postwar borders of WWII were 26.6 million.

Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, set in motion events designed to cause a famine in the Ukraine to destroy the people there seeking independence from his rule. As a result, an estimated 7,000,000 persons perished in this farming area, known as the breadbasket of Europe, with the people deprived of the food they had grown with their own hands.

The Ukrainian independence movement actually predated the Stalin era. Ukraine, which measures about the size of France, had been under the domination of the Imperial Czars of Russia for 200 years. With the collapse of the Czarist rule in March 1917, it seemed the long-awaited opportunity for independence had finally arrived. Optimistic Ukrainians declared their country to be an independent People’s Republic and re-established the ancient capital city of Kiev as the seat of government.

However, their new-found freedom was short-lived. By the end of 1917, Vladimir Lenin, the first leader of the Soviet Union, sought to reclaim all of the areas formerly controlled by the Czars, especially the fertile Ukraine. As a result, four years of chaos and conflict followed in which Ukrainian national troops fought against Lenin’s Red Army, and also against Russia’s White Army (troops still loyal to the Czar) as well as other invading forces including the Germans and Poles.

By 1921, the battles ended with a Soviet victory while the western part of the Ukraine was divided-up among Poland, Romania, and Czechoslovakia. The Soviets immediately began shipping out huge amounts of grain to feed the hungry people of Moscow and other big Russian cities. Coincidentally, a drought occurred in the Ukraine, resulting in widespread starvation and a surge of popular resentment against Lenin and the Soviets.

To lessen the deepening resentment, Lenin relaxed his grip on the country, stopped taking out so much grain, and even encouraged a free-market exchange of goods. This breath of fresh air renewed the people’s interest in independence and resulted in a national revival movement celebrating their unique folk customs, language, poetry, music, arts, and Ukrainian orthodox religion.

But when Lenin died in 1924, he was succeeded by Joseph Stalin, one of the most ruthless humans ever to hold power. To Stalin, the burgeoning national revival movement and continuing loss of Soviet influence in the Ukraine was completely unacceptable. To crush the people’s free spirit, he began to employ the same methods he had successfully used within the Soviet Union. Thus, beginning in 1929, over 5,000 Ukrainian scholars, scientists, cultural and religious leaders were arrested after being falsely accused of plotting an armed revolt. Those arrested were either shot without a trial or deported to prison camps in remote areas of Russia.

From 1929 to 1953, 20 million people were exterminated.

Stalin also imposed the Soviet system of land management known as collectivization. This resulted in the seizure of all privately owned farmlands and livestock, in a country where 80 percent of the people were traditional village farmers. Among those farmers, were a class of people called Kulaks by the Communists. They were formerly wealthy farmers that had owned 24 or more acres, or had employed farm workers. Stalin believed any future insurrection would be led by the Kulaks, thus he proclaimed a policy aimed at “liquidating the Kulaks as a class.”

Declared “enemies of the people,” the Kulaks were left homeless and without a single possession as everything was taken from them, even their pots and pans. It was also forbidden by law for anyone to aid dispossessed Kulak families. Some researchers estimate that ten million persons were thrown out of their homes, put on railroad box cars and deported to “special settlements” in the wilderness of Siberia during this era, with up to a third of them perishing amid the frigid living conditions. Men and older boys, along with childless women and unmarried girls, also became slave-workers in Soviet-run mines and big industrial projects.

Back in the Ukraine, once-proud village farmers were by now reduced to the level of rural factory workers on large collective farms. Anyone refusing to participate in the compulsory collectivization system was simply denounced as a Kulak and deported.

A propaganda campaign was started utilizing eager young Communist activists who spread out among the country folk attempting to shore up the people’s support for the Soviet regime. However, their attempts failed. Despite the propaganda, ongoing coercion and threats, the people continued to resist through acts of rebellion and outright sabotage. They burned their own homes rather than surrender them. They took back their property, tools and farm animals from the collectives, harassed and even assassinated local Soviet authorities. This ultimately put them in direct conflict with the power and authority of Joseph Stalin.

Soviet troops and secret police were rushed in to put down the rebellion. They confronted rowdy farmers by firing warning shots above their heads. In some cases, however, they fired directly at the people. Stalin’s secret police (GPU, predecessor of the KGB) also went to work waging a campaign of terror designed to break the people’s will. GPU squads systematically attacked and killed uncooperative farmers.

But the resistance continued. The people simply refused to become cogs in the Soviet farm machine and remained stubbornly determined to return to their pre-Soviet farming lifestyle. Some refused to work at all, leaving the wheat and oats to rot in unharvested fields. Once again, they were placing themselves in conflict with Stalin.

In Moscow, Stalin responded to their unyielding defiance by dictating a policy that would deliberately cause mass starvation and result in the deaths of millions.

By mid 1932, nearly 75 percent of the farms in the Ukraine had been forcibly collectivized. On Stalin’s orders, mandatory quotas of foodstuffs to be shipped out to the Soviet Union were drastically increased in August, October and again in January 1933, until there was simply no food remaining to feed the people of the Ukraine.

Much of the hugely abundant wheat crop harvested by the Ukrainians that year was dumped on the foreign market to generate cash to aid Stalin’s Five Year Plan for the modernization of the Soviet Union and also to help finance his massive military buildup. If the wheat had remained in the Ukraine, it was estimated to have been enough to feed all of the people there for up to two years.

Ukrainian Communists urgently appealed to Moscow for a reduction in the grain quotas and also asked for emergency food aid. Stalin responded by denouncing them and rushed in over 100,000 fiercely loyal Russian soldiers to purge the Ukrainian Communist Party. The Soviets then sealed off the borders of the Ukraine, preventing any food from entering, in effect turning the country into a gigantic concentration camp. Soviet police troops inside the Ukraine also went house to house seizing any stored up food, leaving farm families without a morsel. All food was considered to be the “sacred” property of the State. Anyone caught stealing State property, even an ear of corn or stubble of wheat, could be shot or imprisoned for not less than ten years.

Starvation quickly ensued throughout the Ukraine, with the most vulnerable, children and the elderly, first feeling the effects of malnutrition. The once-smiling young faces of children vanished forever amid the constant pain of hunger. It gnawed away at their bellies, which became grossly swollen, while their arms and legs became like sticks as they slowly starved to death.

Mothers in the countryside sometimes tossed their emaciated children onto passing railroad cars traveling toward cities such as Kiev in the hope someone there would take pity. But in the cities, children and adults who had already flocked there from the countryside were dropping dead in the streets, with their bodies carted away in horse-drawn wagons to be dumped in mass graves. Occasionally, people lying on the sidewalk who were thought to be dead, but were actually still alive, were also carted away and buried.

While police and Communist Party officials remained quite well fed, desperate Ukrainians ate leaves off bushes and trees, killed dogs, cats, frogs, mice and birds then cooked them. Others, gone mad with hunger, resorted to cannibalism, with parents sometimes even eating their own children.

Meanwhile, nearby Soviet-controlled granaries were said to be bursting at the seams from huge stocks of ‘reserve’ grain, which had not yet been shipped out of the Ukraine. In some locations, grain and potatoes were piled in the open, protected by barbed wire and armed GPU guards who shot down anyone attempting to take the food. Farm animals, considered necessary for production, were allowed to be fed, while the people living among them had absolutely nothing to eat.

By the spring of 1933, the height of the famine, an estimated 25,000 persons died every day in the Ukraine. Entire villages were perishing. In Europe, America and Canada, persons of Ukrainian descent and others responded to news reports of the famine by sending in food supplies. But Soviet authorities halted all food shipments at the border. It was the official policy of the Soviet Union to deny the existence of a famine and thus to refuse any outside assistance. Anyone claiming that there was in fact a famine was accused of spreading anti-Soviet propaganda. Inside the Soviet Union, a person could be arrested for even using the word ‘famine’ or ‘hunger’ or ‘starvation’ in a sentence.

The Soviets bolstered their famine denial by duping members of the foreign press and international celebrities through carefully staged photo opportunities in the Soviet Union and the Ukraine. The writer George Bernard Shaw, along with a group of British socialites, visited the Soviet Union and came away with a favorable impression which he disseminated to the world. Former French Premier Edouard Herriot was given a five-day stage-managed tour of the Ukraine, viewing spruced-up streets in Kiev and inspecting a ‘model’ collective farm. He also came away with a favorable impression and even declared there was indeed no famine.

Back in Moscow, six British engineers working in the Soviet Union were arrested and charged with sabotage, espionage and bribery, and threatened with the death penalty. The sensational show trial that followed was actually a cynical ruse to deflect the attention of foreign journalists from the famine. Journalists were warned they would be shut out of the trial completely if they wrote news stories about the famine. Most of the foreign press corp yielded to the Soviet demand and either didn’t cover the famine or wrote stories sympathetic to the official Soviet propaganda line that it didn’t exist. Among those was Pulitzer Prize winning reporter Walter Duranty of the New York Times who sent one dispatch stating “…all talk of famine now is ridiculous.”

Outside the Soviet Union, governments of the West adopted a passive attitude toward the famine, although most of them had become aware of the true suffering in the Ukraine through confidential diplomatic channels. In November 1933, the United States, under its new president, Franklin D. Roosevelt, even chose to formally recognized Stalin’s Communist government and also negotiated a sweeping new trade agreement. The following year, the pattern of denial in the West culminated with the admission of the Soviet Union into the League of Nations.

Stalin’s Five Year Plan for the modernization of the Soviet Union depended largely on the purchase of massive amounts of manufactured goods and technology from Western nations. Those nations were unwilling to disrupt lucrative trade agreements with the Soviet Union in order to pursue the matter of the famine.

By the end of 1933, nearly 25 percent of the population of the Ukraine, including three million children, had perished. The Kulaks as a class were destroyed and an entire nation of village farmers had been laid low. With his immediate objectives now achieved, Stalin allowed food distribution to resume inside the Ukraine and the famine subsided. However, political persecutions and further round-ups of ‘enemies’ continued unchecked in the years following the famine, interrupted only in June 1941 when Nazi troops stormed into the country. Hitler’s troops, like all previous invaders, arrived in the Ukraine to rob the breadbasket of Europe and simply replaced one reign of terror with another.

Although officially Jews have never made up more than five percent of the country’s total population, they played a highly disproportionate and probably decisive role in the infant Bolshevik regime, effectively dominating the Soviet government during its early years. Soviet historians, along with most of their colleagues in the West, for decades preferred to ignore this subject. The facts, though, cannot be denied.

With the notable exception of Lenin (Vladimir Ulyanov), most of the leading Communists who took control of Russia in 1917-20 were Jews. Leon Trotsky (Lev Bronstein) headed the Red Army and, for a time, was chief of Soviet foreign affairs. Yakov Sverdlov (Solomon) was both the Bolshevik party’s executive secretary and — as chairman of the Central Executive Committee — head of the Soviet government. Grigori Zinoviev (Radomyslsky) headed the Communist International (Comintern), the central agency for spreading revolution in foreign countries. Other prominent Jews included press commissar Karl Radek (Sobelsohn), foreign affairs commissar Maxim Litvinov (Wallach), Lev Kamenev (Rosenfeld) and Moisei Uritsky.

Lenin himself was of mostly Russian and Kalmuck ancestry, but he was also one-quarter Jewish. His maternal grandfather, Israel (Alexander) Blank, was a Ukrainian Jew who was later baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church.

A thorough-going internationalist, Lenin viewed ethnic or cultural loyalties with contempt. He had little regard for his own countrymen. “An intelligent Russian,” he once remarked, “is almost always a Jew or someone with Jewish blood in his veins.”

Holodomor was a famine in Ukraine caused by the government of Joseph Stalin, a part of the Soviet famine of 1932–1933. Holodomor is claimed by the contemporary Ukrainian government to be a genocide of the Ukrainians. According to the decision of Kyiv Appellation Court, 3.9 million Ukrainians died in the famine.

As of March 2008, Ukraine and nineteen other governments have recognized the actions of the Soviet government as an act of genocide. The joint statement at the United Nations in 2003 has defined the famine as the result of cruel actions and policies of the totalitarian regime that caused the deaths of millions of Ukrainians, Russians, Kazakhs and other nationalities in the USSR. On 23 October 2008 the European Parliament adopted a resolution that recognized the Holodomor as a crime against humanity.

On January 12, 2010, the court of appeals in Kiev opened hearings into the “fact of genocide-famine Holodomor in Ukraine in 1932–33”, in May 2009 the Security Service of Ukraine had started a criminal case “in relation to the genocide in Ukraine in 1932–33”. In a ruling on January 13, 2010 the court found Stalin and other Bolshevik leaders guilty of genocide against the Ukrainians.

In 1935, China established gun control.

Mao Zedong, founder of the People’s Republic of China, qualifies as the greatest mass murderer in world history, an expert who had unprecedented access to official Communist Party archives said yesterday.

Chinese rural history from 1958 to 1962, when the nation was facing a famine, compared the systematic torture, brutality, starvation and killing of Chinese peasants to the Second World War in its magnitude. At least 45 million people were worked, starved or beaten to death in China over these four years; the worldwide death toll of the Second World War was 55 million.

85 to 90% of the foreigners helping the Chinese at the time of the Communist takeover were Jewish. This included the daughter of the founder of the brokerage firm Goldman Sachs, who left the comfort of her Park Avenue home to assist the Chinese.

The Communist Party in China was created by the Jewish Communist International in a meeting in Shang Hi between Jews from Russia and Chinese Jews:

In order to advance their interests, Jewish Lenin and Trotsky sent Gregory Voitinsky to China to make contact with leftist intellectuals, like Chen Duxiu. Politically, Chen advocated the Trotskyist theory of Marxism. Voitinsky was sent to China by the Comintern chairman, Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky Apfelbaum., also known as Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev.

[Zinoviev was the long-time head of the Communist International and was a stooge of Lenin. During Lenin’s illness, Zinoviev, his sidekick Kamenev, and Joseph Stalin [my note Stalin was Jewish] formed a ruling ‘triumvirate’ (or ‘troika’) in the Communist Party, playing a key role in the marginalization of Leon Trotsky.]

Chen decided to run a special edition on Marxism . The edition of this magazine was the most detailed analysis of Marxism then published in China, and achieved wide readership due to the journal’s popularity. In 1921, Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and other prominent revolutionary leaders founded the Communist Party of China. Chen Duxiu, was the dean of Peking University. Chen had participated in the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 which overthrew the Qing Dynasty and established the Republic of China

How did so many white Jews land up in Shanghai and then later in Hong Kong ? [To aid Communist take over]

Well he was a Chinese Jew first educated at Yali School in the provincial capital of Changsha and later Rothschild run Yale-in-China University. Later he was sent on a Jewish scholarship to Munich University in 1926 where he received his Ph.D. in political economics in 1932, and a crash course in Marxism.

Dr. Ho Feng-Shan, was planted as the Chinese consul-general in Vienna from May 1938 to May 1940. When Jews wanted a safe sanctuary before and during the Second World War, Dr Ho issued visas to white Jews— more than 21000 visas.

1949: On October 1, Mao Tse Tsung declares the founding of the People’s Republic Of China in Tiananmen Square, Beijing. He is funded by Rothschild created Communism in Russia and also the following Rothschild agents: Solomon Adler, a former United States Treasury official who was a Soviet Spy; Israel Epstein, the son of a Jewish Bolshevik imprisoned by the Tsar in Russia for trying to forment a revolution there; and Frank Coe, a leading official of the Rothschild owned IMF.

Mao would genocide 70 million innocent Chinese people under his rule mainly to destroy traditional Chinese culture. Like with Christianity any practioners of spiritual systems where outlawed, killed and put into gulags which was a slow death. And Communistic systems where the new culture of control. With China under their flag Tibet was next on the list as being the last bastion of spiritual knowledge and histories of humanity.

A century and more before the Rothschild’s and the Solomon Brothers used their control of England and its control of India to run the Opium trade into China killing tens of thousands and wrecking entire communities to the point the Chinese fought the Opium wars to try and throw the dealers out.

“The Revolutionary” tells the story of Southern-born Sidney Rittenberg, the only American that has ever been admitted to the Chinese Communist Party. The Mandarin-speaking Rittenberg, who was initially sent to China by the U.S. Army at the time of Japan’s surrender at the end of World War II, became an influential advisor to Mao Zedong and to the first premier of the People’s Republic of China, Zhou Enlai. His pivotal role at the Broadcast Authority, explaining the Communist Chinese point of view to America, earned him a higher salary than Chairman Mao.

Jakob Rosenfeld (1903-1952), more commonly known as General Luo, served as the Minister of Health in the 1947 Provisional Communist Military Government of China under Mao Zedong.

Rosenfeld, a Jew born in Lemberg, the Austro-Hungarian Empire (today Lviv, Ukraine), was raised in Wöllersdorf near Wiener Neustadt. He graduated in medicine with a specialization in urology from Vienna University. After the Anschluss, Rosenfeld was deported to Dachau concentration camp and later to Buchenwald. In 1939 he was released and had to leave the country within two weeks. Since China did not require Jews to apply for a visa, he fled to the Shanghai ghetto.

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House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is a German dynasty, the line of the Saxon House of Wettin that ruled the Ernestine duchies including the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

The House of Wettin is a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors and kings that once ruled territories of present-day German states of Saxony and Thuringia for 953 years. The royal house is one of the oldest of Europe. Its origins can be traced back to the town of Wettin, Saxony-Anhalt. The Wettins gradually rose to power within the Holy Roman Empire. Members of the royal family became the monarchs of several medieval states, starting with Saxon Eastern March in 1030. Other states they gained were Meissen in 1089, Thuringia in 1263 and Saxony in 1423.

Founded by Ernest Anton, the sixth duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, it is the royal house of several European monarchies, and branches currently reign in Belgium through the descendants of Leopold I, and in the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms through the descendants of Prince Albert.

Due to anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I, George V changed the name of his branch from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor in 1917. The same happened in Belgium where it was changed to “van België” (Dutch) or “de Belgique” (French).

Leopold II of Belgium was born in Brussels on 9 April 1835. He was the second child of the reigning Belgian monarch, Leopold I, and his second wife, Louise, the daughter of King Louis Philippe of France. The French Revolution of 1848, which spared Belgium, had forced Louis Philippe to flee to the United Kingdom, ruled by Leopold’s German cousin Queen Victoria.

The royal families of Belgium and the United Kingdom were linked by numerous marriages, and were additionally both descended from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

The Congo Free State (État indépendant du Congo) was a large area in Central Africa that was privately controlled by Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold extracted a fortune from the Congo, initially by the collection of ivory, and after a rise in the price of rubber in the 1890s, by forced labor from the natives to harvest and process rubber. Under his regime there were 2 to 15 million deaths among the Congolese people. Robert Weisbord stated in the 2003 Journal of Genocide Research in the article “The King, the Cardinal and the Pope: Leopold II’s genocide in the Congo and the Vatican” that attempting to eliminate a portion of the population is enough to qualify as genocide under the UN convention. In the case of the Congo Free State, the unbearable conditions would qualify as a genocide.” Weisbord, Robert G. (2003). Human rights abuses under his regime were a significant cause of the excess deaths. Reports of the deaths and abuse led to a major international scandal in the early 20th century, and Leopold was ultimately forced in 1908 by the Belgian government to relinquish control of the colony to the civil administration.

A reduction of the population of the Congo is noted by all who have compared the country at the beginning of Leopold’s control with the beginning of Belgian state rule in 1908, but estimates of the deaths toll vary considerably. Estimates of the death toll vary considerably, but the figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.

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Love and your soul are the key to the next dimension. There are many dimensions, we are all of them. I take joy in my life, I love everything. You cannot open your life to miracles unless you love, you cannot open your soul for world peace, unless you love. Love is with all. Love crosses all dimensions, your soul crosses all dimensions. You are one

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The Ancestral Rocky Mountains

“First there is a mountain, then there is no mountain, then there is.”
Buddhist proverb


North America has experienced two lofty mountain ranges called the Rockies during the Phanerozoic Eon, the time period in which multicellular life existed on Earth (the last 542 million years). The first was the Ancestral Rocky Mountains that has long since eroded away. We know of its existence because of its eroded remnants. The second, the modern Rocky Mountains in all their majesty, are also eroding, but are still in a state of uplift.
The details of the origin of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains remains a mystery to this day. What explanation we have is based on circumstantial evidence, namely their remnants and other geological clues. Of interest to this discussion are those remnants. “How did they get there?” “Where can they be seen today?” To bring greater meaning to the geological significance of these deposits, let’s explore the process of formation of both mountain ranges.


The ancient supercontinent of Rodinia rifted apart in the Late Proterozoic, spawning the smaller, but no less diminutive, supercontinents of Laurentia and Gondwana in the process. Amongst other effects, that event left a long passive margin on the western seaboard of Laurentia. Beginning with the Cambrian Period, extensive sedimentation took place on this long and broad, coastal margin, where subsidence prevailed for over 200 million years. The orogenic rise of the future Ancestral Rocky Mountains and the modern Rocky Mountains would occur from this sea level locale, but both ranges were more cratonically positioned. During the early and middle Paleozoic, Laurentia gradually morphed into Laurussia by the accretion of various magmatic arcs and micro-continents along its eastern seaboard. Laurussia’s passive, western seaboard became active in the late Paleozoic, and continues as such to this day. The new tectonic regime changed the face of western North America and the future Colorado Plateau, while its eastern seaboard has remained passive with the spreading of the Atlantic Ocean.


Both the ancestral and modern ranges were formed as a result of the interactions of converging tectonic plates. In the case of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, the convergence involved two massive plates, the Gondwana and the Laurussia plate. That formed a continent-continent boundary in the late Paleozoic. The modern Rocky Mountains, on the other hand, formed from the convergence of an ocean-continent boundary between the Farallon and the North American plate, respectively, in the Mesozoic and early Paleogene.

Modern plate tectonic theory establishes the location of orogeny or mountain-building in association with the converging plate boundaries. In the case of ocean-continent plate convergence, mountain-building is where the collision zone replaces the consuming margin. This produces subduction, destruction of ocean lithosphere, earthquakes, and a line of very active volcanoes. For continent-continent plate convergence, a powerful collision occurs. This produces intense compression, folding and faulting of rocks, and deformation extending into the plates’ interiors. In either case, mountain ranges are generated in association with the plate margins. In contradiction to tectonic-tenets, both the Ancestral and modern Rocky Mountains occupied decidedly intraplate-locations and at significant distances from their converging plate boundaries. The specifics of the collisions and the types of structural deformation that formed both mountain ranges differ greatly.


In the case of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, the austral-polar supercontinent of Gondwana converged upon the plate of the low- to mid-latitude supercontinent of Laurussia during the Pennsylvanian and Early Permian Periods. The ensuing continent-continent collision, approximately at today’s eastern seaboard of North America, created the lofty Appalachian Mountains at the juncture of the converging plates. That event is referred to as the Alleghenian Orogeny. That massive collision put the finishing touches on the assembly of a new, massive supercontinent called Pangaea. It wasn’t until Pangaea was torn apart by rifting from the Late Triassic through the earliest Paleogene that the Appalachian chain would remain on North America’s eastern margin.

The supercontinents of Gondwana (visible in lower right) and Laurussia (nascent North America) are on a collision course during the Late Devonian (365 Ma). Note that western North America is largely submerged.

A Middle Pennsylvanian (307 Ma) depiction of the Gondwanan-Laurussian supercontinental collision showing the uplifted Appalachian Mountain chain.


Gondwana was an amalgamation of the modern continents of South America, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica at the time of its collision with Laurussia. Gondwana being so large, several orogenies occurred from the collision at various times and locations. One in particular, the Ouachita-Marathon Orogeny, resulted from the South American portion of Gondwana striking the future Gulf Coast region of North America. Far to the west of that suture-line and situated in an intraplate location, the Ancestral Rocky Mountains were created in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma from the late Mississippian to early Permian.

Competing hypotheses exist in attempts to explain the widespread deformational event (also referred to as the Ancestral Rocky Mountain Orogeny) being so far from the site of the Gondwanan collision and with structures oriented obliquely to the “known” compressional forces. No general consensus has been reached, although the  Gondwanan collision from the southeast is favored. Those advocates focus on pre-existing crustal weaknesses along fractures in the basement rocks in association with strike-slip faulting. More recent explanations invoke a tectonic collision from the southwest, a more logical explanation from a compressional mountain-building perspective. In such a scenario, the orientation of the Ancestral Rockies and their basins would be appropriately oriented perpendicular to the stress that formed them. Advocates of this hypothesis are looking at what was then the southwest margin of Mexico for a telltale subduction zone and ancient volcanic arcs.
Regardless of a universally agreed upon tectonic genesis, the Ancestrals began their rise and created a very complex paleogeography that dominated sedimentation for the next 100 million years, give or take.

A Late Pennsylvanian (300 Ma) close-up depiction of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains and their associated basins, currently inundated by marine highwater. Note the uplifts in Texas and off to the southeast, located closer to the converging plates.

The Ancestral Rocky Mountains consisted of a series of mountain ranges (uplifts and highlands) and deep, associated, assymmetrical bounding basins (troughs). Tectonically-induced block-faulting was responsible for the formation of the intracratonic ranges which trended north- to northwest and radically affected sedimentation into the respective basins, especially marine shale, carbonates and coarse-grained arkosic detritus. Over this region, basin subsidence and basement uplift were approximately synchronous. Relevant to this post were the Uncompahgre Uplift and its neighboring Paradox Basin to the west, the Central Colorado Basin, the Front Range (Frontrangia) Uplift and the Denver Basin to the east. As the Ancestrals eroded, they shed their sediments into the basins filling them with thousands of feet of red, arkosic sandstone and shale. In regard to the Uncompahgre Uplift, sedimentation extended onto far reaching regions of the future Colorado Plateau. By the end of the Permian, the uplifts had completely eroded away, reduced to subdued, low hills and plains.

A diagram of the numerous uplifts (red) and basins of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Pertinent to our discussion, note the Uncompahgre Uplift (32), its associated Paradox Basin (44), the Central Colorado Trough (36), and the Front Range Uplift (30) and its associated Denver Basin (31). From www.colorado.edu/GeolSci/Resources/WUSTectonics/AncestralRockies/introduction.html

A diagrammatic view showing the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, its uplifts and basins. The three red dots correspond to my discussion of erosional remnants at the end of this post: Fisher Towers (near Moab, UT), the Maroon Bells (near aspen, CO) and the Flatirons (Boulder, CO). Modified from Lindsey et al (1986)

A diagrammatic view showing the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, its uplifts and basins. The three red dots correspond to my discussion of erosional remnants at the end of this post: Fisher Towers (near Moab, UT), the Maroon Bells (near aspen, CO) and the Flatirons (Boulder, CO). Modified from Lindsey et al (1986)

ARM uplifts and basins

A diagrammatic view showing the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, its uplifts and basins. The three red dots correspond to my discussion of erosional remnants at the end of this post: Fisher Towers (near Moab, UT), the Maroon Bells (near aspen, CO) and the Flatirons (Boulder, CO). Modified from Lindsey et al (1986)


The Ancestral Rocky Mountains were completely eroded away by the time the modern Rocky Mountains formed. The western migration of the North American plate, driven in part by the rifting Atlantic Ocean, converged with the oceanic Farallon plate. The ensuing subduction of the more dense, Farallon plate beneath the more buoyant, continental North American plate, approximately at what is today the western seaboard of North America, created crustal thickening and associated magmatism at the continental margin. This subduction event is known as the Sevier Orogeny (from the latest Jurassic to the Eocene). The Sevier is distinguished by having a second “phase” called the Laramide Orogeny (from the Late Cretaceous through the Eocene). The two are basically one continuous orogenic event with arbitrarily separated-phases occurring over a considerable overlap in time. Their differing effects on the landscape  are attributable to changing geometries over time associated with the subducting Farallon plate.


Unlike the Sevier event, the Laramide Orogeny penetrated deeply into and profoundly affected the craton. It was the greatest mountain-building episode to affect the western U.S. That uplift was at considerable distance from the plate boundary and created the modern Rocky Mountains, and uplifted a fair share, if not most of, the Colorado Plateau. Uplift of the plateau is commonly linked with its erosional denudation. Thus, many of the existing erosional features of the Colorado Plateau were created such as its canyons, mesas, buttes, arches, bridges, hoodoos, spires, pedestals and towers. More on that later!

Interestingly, the Ancestral Rocky Mountains and the modern Rocky Mountains bear a vaguely similar position within the continent, near present-day Colorado. Laramide uplifts in many cases coincide with the location raised by the Ancestral Orogeny. This is no coincidence of location, indicating the “susceptibility” of the continental crust, once broken, to future re-activity. A subject for another discussion, preexisting Precambrian folds and faults comprising the cratonic basement exert a long-lasting affect.


No sooner had the Ancestrals begun to assume their lofty status than erosion began to wear them down. The  rocks that formed the core of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains were Precambrian metamorphic and sedimentary rock, the latter from the vast seas of the early Paleozoic, both forming the basement of the western North American continent. As the Ancestrals eroded throughout the late Paleozoic, they left extensive deposits of rock that was a signature of their core and cratonic basement (confirmed by dating techniques of detrital zircon geochronology). Those remnants can be viewed at Fisher Towers near Moab, Utah, the Maroon Bells of Aspen, and the Flatirons above Boulder, Colorado.


The Uncompahgre Uplift dominated sedimentation into its associated Paradox Basin and throughout large areas of the Southwest during the Pennsylvanian and Permian Periods. Closest to the Uncompahgre Mountains, thick deposits of coarse-grained arkose were formed on huge alluvial fans and their flood plains, built against the mountainous front and stretching from eastern Utah to northern New Mexico. Uplift of the Colorado Plateau region during the Laramide Orogeny triggered the erosion that sculpted the towers, spires and pedestals of Fisher Towers.

Fisher Towers is located in Fisher Valley (a collapsed salt-anticline), which is about 20 miles northeast of Moab. On display are various shades of red-brown, red-purple and maroon sedimentary rock. Several of the upper, darker parts of Fisher Towers are capped by the lower sandstone remnant of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation. The Moenkopi is more resistant to erosion than the softer, underlying layers and, therein, helps to form the pedestals and towers of Fisher. The middle and lower parts of the towers are sandstone, mudstone and conglomerate of the Permian Cutler Formation. These rocks were deposited within rivers and streams flowing south from the Uncompahgre Uplifts that formed at the beginning of the Pennsylvanian Period (about 320 million years ago). By the end of the Permian Period (about 250 million years ago) the highlands of the Uncompahgre had succumbed to erosion, being reduced to low hills and plains.

The conglomerate of the Cutler Formation contains cobbles and pebbles of quartz, feldspar, mica, granite, schist and quartzite derived from Precambrian crystalline rocks that were eroded into the Paradox Basin from the Uncompahgre Uplifts of the Ancestral Rockies. The coarseness of the conglomerate in the low cliffs is indicative of the nearness to the source of the sediments. Contained within the red, sandy-matrix of the Cutler Formation are Middle Proterozoic crystalline-clasts that look identical to the Vishnu-Zoroaster complex at the bottom of the Grand Canyon. These clasts represent the basement-core of the long-eroded Ancestral Rocky Mountains. The uplift of the Colorado Plateau that began 80 to 50 million years ago carved the erosional features of Fisher Towers. By the end of the Permian period, the highlands no longer existed but their erosional remnants remain as a signature of their presence.

Fisher Towers illuminated by the late day sun not far from Moab

MAROON BELLS NEAR ASPEN, COLORADO There are two peaks in the Elk Mountains of Colorado, southwest of Aspen, both of which are over 14,000 feet. They are the Maroon Bells, called the “Deadly Bells” by the US Forest Service, owing to the “rotten and unstable” rock  for climbers that comprises the Maroon Formation. Between the Uncompahgre Uplift and Front Range Uplifts of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains existed an intervening basin called the Central Colorado Trough. It is here where the Pennsylvanian and Permian dark red clays, sandstones and conglomerates shed from the eroding Ancestrals accumulated known as the Maroon Formation. During the Laramide Orogeny, the Maroon Formation was folded and thrust westward over itself and over younger strata. Mesozoic rocks that lay above the Maroon Formation have largely eroded away.
Note that in central Colorado further to the east in the modern Eagle Basin, the Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation along the eastern margin of the Central Colorado Basin reflects a similar depositional lithofacies of largely arkosic, fan-delta and open marine deposits in a tectonically active setting. Similarly, the Sangre de Cristo Formation formed to the southeast in the Central Colorado Basin and the contiguous Taos Trough.

Looking up a classic, U-shaped glacial valley near Aspen at the Maroon Bells in the distance.


The Flatirons form the most recognizable feature of the Boulder backdrop, soaring upward at an angle of over 50 degrees. The mudstone, sandstone and arkosic conglomerates of the Early Pennsylvanian to Early Permian Fountain Formation were deposited in the Denver Basin in the erosional shadow of the Front Range (Frontrangia) Uplift of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Faulting during the much later Laramide Orogeny is responsible for the extreme, near-vertical uplift, angulation and erosion of the strata.
The escalloped and vegetated Middle Permian Lyons Formation can be seen at the base of the Flatirons. The Lyons Formation visually tends to merge with the Fountain Formation, on which it lies. The dunes that lithified into the Lyons were blown from stream channels descending from the low remnants of the Ancestral Front Range.

The upthrown Flatirons shine in the morning sun above Boulder

IN SUMMARY Fisher Towers, the Maroon Bells and the Flatirons bear a common thread. They all tell the story of an orogeny that happened long ago, of mountains that rose from the sea and towered over the region,  eventually succumbing to the forces of erosion and the ravages of time. If it wasn’t for the Ancestral’s erosional signature, we might well not have known of their existence. Such is the geological evidence. Our knowledge is partial and biased, constructed only from the fragmentary evidence that has been preserved. Yet, an incredible story is told. The beauty of it all.

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