DRUG WAR

In 2013, there was a total 11,302,102 arrests nationwide for all offenses.

There were 1,501,043 arrests for drug law violations in 2013, 82.3% (1,235,358) were for possession of a controlled substance. Only 17.7% (265,685) were for the sale or manufacturing of a drug.

Of the 1,235,358 arrests for possession of a controlled substance, 40.6%, or 501,555 were for marijuana. 33% of all arrests for drug law violations in 2013 were for marijuana.

There were 80% more arrests for drug possession or use in 2010 (1,336,530) than in 1990 (741,600).

Also in 2013, authorities reported 480,360 arrests for all violent crimes and 1,559,284 arrests for all property offenses.

In 2012, of the 1,060,028 offenses known to the police for violent crimes, only 46.8% were cleared by arrest or exceptional means; of the 8,015,405 offenses known to police for property crimes, only 19% were cleared by arrest or exceptional means.

Contrary to conventional wisdom and popular myth, alcohol is more tightly linked with more violent crimes than crack, cocaine, heroin or any other illegal drug. In state prisons, 21 percent of inmates in prison for violent crimes were under the influence of alcohol–and no other substance–when they committed their crime; in contrast, at the time of their crimes, only three percent of violent offenders were under the influence of cocaine or crack alone, only one percent under the influence of heroin alone.

On August 3, 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010. Per the Sentencing Project, “the minimum quantity of crack cocaine that triggers a 5-year mandatory minimum from 5 grams to 28 grams, and from 50 grams to 280 grams to trigger a 10-year mandatory minimum sentence. The amount of powder cocaine required to trigger the 5 and 10-year mandatory minimums remains the same, at 500 grams and 5 kilograms, respectively. The legislation also eliminates the mandatory minimum for simple possession of crack cocaine. The quantity disparity between crack and powder cocaine has moved from 100 to 1 to 18 to 1.

SCHEDULE I (b): (10) Heroin (c): (2) 5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine [MDMA]. (8) Ibogaine. (9) Lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD] . (10) Marihuana [marijuana, cannabis]. (11) Mescaline. (12) Peyote. (15) Psilocybin. (16) Psilocyn. (17) Tetrahydrocannabinols. Sec. 3: Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)

http://www.drugwarfacts.org/cms/crime

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Do We Have A Vote for Racism: US, Canada, Ukraine

November 21, 2014: Canada, Ukraine, and the United States voted against a resolution at the United Nations on committing the member countries of the world body to combat racism and xenophobia in all its forms. Reaffirms the relevant provisions of the Durban Declaration and of the outcome document of the Durban Review Conference, in which States condemned the persistence and resurgence of neo-Nazism, neo-Fascism and violent nationalist ideologies based on racial and national prejudice and stated that those phenomena could never be justified in any instance or in any circumstances. The text was approved by a record vote of 115 in favour, 3 against, with 55 abstentions.

 

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Po’ Lease

1,029 people have been killed by the police in 2014 – about a 30 percent increase over last year – 2013 marked a two-decade high in killings by police – the U.S. government doesn’t track how many people are killed by the police – the FBI tracks “justifiable” police homicides, which it reports to be about 400 per year, but that tally is an undercount – only 750 agencies contribute to the database, a fraction of the 17,000 law enforcement agencies in the United States – of the roughly 400 reported police killings annually, an average of 96 involved a white police officer killing a black person – 18% of the blacks killed during those seven years were under age 21, compared to 8.7% of whites – 41 U.S. officers were charged with either murder or manslaughter in connection with an on-duty shooting between 2005 and 2011, for comparison, the FBI reported a total of 2,718 “justified homicides” by law enforcement officers during that seven-year time period. 27 police officers were killed on-duty in 2013, according to the FBI.

In 2012, there were 780,000 police officers in the US – In 2013, there were 316 million people in the US.

So, 1029 police killings out of 780,000 police officers, serving a population of 316 million. Not a bad record.

http://www.nleomf.org/facts/enforcement/

  • There are more than 900,000 sworn law enforcement officers now serving in the United States, which is the highest figure ever. About 12 percent of those are female.
  • According to the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports, an estimated 1.2 million violent crimes occurred nationwide in 2011, a four percent decrease from 2010.
  • Crime fighting has taken its toll. Since the first recorded police death in 1791, there have been over 20,000 law enforcement officers killed in the line of duty. Currently, there are 20,267 names engraved on the walls of the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial.
  • A total of 1,501 law enforcement officers died in the line of duty during the past 10 years, an average of one death every 58 hours or 150 per year. There were 100 law enforcement officers killed in 2013.
  • On average, over the last decade, there have been 58,261 assaults against law enforcement each year, resulting in 15,658 injuries.
  • The 1920s were the deadliest decade in law enforcement history, when a total of 2,390 officers died, or an average of almost 239 each year. The deadliest year in law enforcement history was 1930, when 297 officers were killed. That figure dropped dramatically in the 1990s, to an average of 162 per year.
  • The deadliest day in law enforcement history was September 11, 2001, when 72 officers were killed while responding to the terrorist attacks on America.
  • New York City has lost more officers in the line of duty than any other department, with 697 deaths. Texas has lost 1,675 officers, more than any other state. The state with the fewest deaths is Vermont, with 22.
  • There are 1,081 federal officers listed on the Memorial, as well as 622 correctional officers and 32 military law enforcement officers.
  • There are 275 female officers listed on the Memorial; four female officers were killed in 2013.
  • During the past ten years, more incidents that resulted in felonious fatalities occurred on Thursday than any other day of the week. The fewest number of felonious incidents occurred on Tuesday.

 

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Connecting The Dots

General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was Egypt’s commanding general and then Egypt’s Defense minister. Now he is the country’s First Deputy Prime Minister. And he is Jewish. That he is Jewish is left out of all Corporate Media articles. If you knew his mother was a Moroccan Jew and that his uncle was a member of the Israeli Knesset, you might be able to connect the dots and see through the illusions spun by the news.

Knowing that General Sisi is Jewish might help you understand why he has ordered all the tunnels from Egypt to Gaza be destroyed. An Egyptian Muslim or an American or European Gentile might consider allowing the tunnels to remain open as that is the only reliable means of food and medicine for the much persecuted Gazans. The Jews of Israel have kept the Gazans and the Palestinians on a diet which is their way of saying they are starving them to break their will. Now that you understand Sisi is Jewish, you know why he is helping Israel to abuse the Palestinians of Gaza. And also why he is killing so many of the Muslims in Egypt.

Our next two dots are in Saudi Arabia and Turkey but we will have to go back to Sabbatai Zevi (1626-1676) to understand their origins. Rabbi Zevi claimed to be the Jewish Messiah. He taught his followers to invoke the wrath of God to hasten the days of the End of the (Gentile) Age. He told them to commit incest and even that daughters should conceive babies  by their fathers. He obtained many followers. Some say half of the Jews of Europe followed him as they subsequently did rabbi Jacob Franks who also claimed to be the Messiah and was a satanist.

Zevi burned the Torah and accepted only the Talmud, the Zohar and the Kabbalah. Unfortunately for him, the Sultan forced Zevi to convert to Islam. He founded his own sect of Islam called the Donmeh which added some Sufi mysticism to his teachings. Modern day Turkey has at least 100,000 Donmeh. Some say many more. The Donmeh were very powerful within the Sultan’s regime and in the Young Turks movement that replaced them with the modern secular Turkish state.

Wayne Madsen wrote this: One Young Turk from Salonika, Mehmet Talat, was the official who carried out the genocide of the Armenians and Assyrians. A Venezuelan mercenary who served in the Ottoman army, Rafael de Nogales Mendez, noted in his annals of the Armenian genocide that Talat was known as the “renegade Hebrew of Salonika.” Talat was assassinated in Germany in 1921 by an Armenian whose entire family was lost in the genocide ordered by the “renegade Hebrew.” It is believed by some historians of the Armenian genocide that the Armenians, known as good businessmen, were targeted by the business-savvy Dönmeh because they were considered to be commercial competitors.

We should note that Salonika was a Jewish town in Turkish occupied Greece which had been home to Zevi for awhile.

We now may more clearly understand why modern Turkey is an ally with Israel and NATO against Syria. But why is Saudi Arabia so keen to help Israel, the US and Great Britain?

Wayne Madsen also wrote this: the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency points to the Dönmeh roots of the founder of the Saudi Wahhabi sect of Islam, Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab.

These are the modern day Wahhabis who do not let women drive cars and force them to wear veils. No other sect of Islam requires women to veil themselves. These are the men who are recruited into Al Qaeda. Their idea of Sharia law is to attack women in the street who wear secular clothes and attend universities. In the Egyptian elections many poor people in Egypt voted for the Muslim Brotherhood because they believed an Islamic party would rebel against the usury of the IMF and the World Bank and mitigate the suffering of the poor. Instead they brought a sword to the land. It was almost as if the Islamic party was taking their marching orders from Tel Aviv. Destroy every Muslim state powerful enough to say No to the Israel’s need to periodically commit genocide.

Wayne Madsen also reveals the Jewish origins of the Saud family who were put on the throne of Saudi Arabia after pledging support to the British for creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine. And this: In Said Nasir’s book, The History of the Saud Family, it is maintained that in 1943, the Saudi ambassador to Egypt, Abdullah bin Ibrahim al Muffadal, paid Muhammad al Tamami to forge a family tree showing that the Sauds and Wahhabs were one family that descended directly from the Prophet Mohammed.

Now we can connect even more dots. We understand why the Saudi royal family and their pet religion, the Wahhabis, are such big supporters of Zionism and Imperialism. Have you ever seem Al Qaeda attack Israel? What strange Islamic terrorists these men be!

Al Qaeda means the base. Robin Cook, the former British Foreign Secretary, said Al Qaeda is the database of Muslims willing to work for the CIA and MI6. Al Qaeda is active in Pakistan killing Muslims and Christians to divide the nation so they cannot resist NATO and Zionist imperialism. The Pakistanis after several years of suffering from drone strikes have finally decided to take their protests against America to the UN.

I would hope you realize that Israel did 911 so you can understand the following. In November of 2001 the US allowed the Pakistanis to airlift 5,000 Al Qaeda and Taliban leaders out of Kunduz in northern Afghanistan to Pakistan. This close relationship has continued to this day. On November 26, 2011 US forces open fired on a Pakistani border post and killed 24 soldiers. They called up the Pakistani regional commander and apologized for the ‘error.’ But they continued firing for 3 more hours. The attack intentionally opened the border so thousands of Taliban could cross back into Afghanistan where the winter would be somewhat milder due to lower elevations. We should note that the Bush administration had decided to invade both Afghanistan and Iraq even before Israel did 911. And I might point out that the US has brought Taliban fighters into Syria to kill Muslims and Christians.

One of the reasons we are in Afghanistan is the hundreds of billions of dollars the CIA, the Military and the banks make every year from selling illegal drugs and weapons.

We need to connect a few more dots in Wall Street and the City of London. Jerome Corsi is of Jewish descent. He talked several times at Harvard with Edward Bernays, Sigmund Freud’s nephew. Bernays invented modern public relations. Bernays sold the US takeover of Guatemala and promoted adding fluoride to the American drinking water. Corsi has written a book and has been doing interviews. He has made some highly misleading assertions about the Bush family and the Nazis.

A few corrections. The Bush name was originally spelled Busch. They were Jews. Herbert Walker and Prescott Bush worked at Brown Brothers Harriman. In a recent interview Corsi spun some wild tale that the Bush family worked with Alan And John Foster Dulles at Brown Brothers Harriman. Not true. The Dulles brothers were lawyers at Cromwell and Sullivan. Their uncle was Woodrow Wilson’s Secretary of State. The Dulles brothers were taken to the Paris Peace Conference under the tutelage of their friend Bernard Baruch who made a fortune selling munitions and other supplies to His Majesty’s Jewish government during WW I.

The Harrimans and the Rockefellers had been made men of substance and importance by the Rothschilds just as J P Morgan had been. The Harrimans helped run the Democratic party for the Rothschilds and the Bush family and the Rockefellers helped with the Republicans. Were Harriman and the Bush families crypto Nazis? Does a secret cabal of Nazis run the European Union and the United States? The answer to both questions is No.

The truth was told by Howard Katz in The Warmongers. The Rothschilds owned the Bank of England until the close of WW II. The Rothschilds loaned Hitler 350 million pounds in 1935 to buy guns to arm Germany and to reorganize I G Farben with the help of the Jewish Mond family who ran Imperial Chemicals at the time. Hitler had no intention of conquering the world. Stalin had 24,000 tanks and 30,000 artillery pieces when war broke out. The British Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax had gone to meet with Hitler and told him that the British government wanted him to gather all of the Germans together into one nation which Britain was helping to arm. The British would pull the plug on the smaller nations like Austria and Czechoslovakia to pave the way for German reunification. Hitler was then to defend the West against Stalin who was brutally murdering millions of Christians every year.

I should point out that the Poles had been persecuting Germans ever since the death of their leader Pilsudski who had signed a non-aggression pact with Germany in 1934. The Polish military taking orders from the new regime fired repeatedly at unarmed German passenger planes on scheduled flights. Polish partisans together with some Jews and Communists had killed German civilians. These were acts of war. Hitler decided war was his only option. He was forced into this position by the Polish government. He never wanted a war with France and England. The World War was the design of the Rothschilds.

The US, Israel and the Zionist state of Saudi Arabia have used Al Qaeda to attack Syria so they can start a war with Iran which will destroy the US military and wreck the American economy permanently.

Perhaps we should mention Albert Pike, the 19th century Freemason, satanist, war criminal and Confederate general who in 1871 predicted 3 world wars needed to bring about a One World Order. Others say this prediction could have originated in the Vatican. World War III was to be a conflict of civilizations involving the Muslims.

In any event the destruction of America and the creation of a New World Order have always been the goal of the Rothschilds. And now you understand why you have spent trillions of dollars supporting the Terrorists of Al Qaeda and the Zionists of Israel. You are funding the destruction of your nation. Now you can connect all the dots.

Now you know all world wars are Rothschild wars.

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What if

I have done extensive research about the world and history. I understand the evil that lurks in power, I understand that some are lost in self and gain. Gain not needed only programmed to be ones nature. I know of the lies and desceit that has become perception. I know that the many are led by a crooked few. I know who the crooked few are. We are given fasination by the lying media, taken from the mouths of the ruling party. We have lost our country and risk losing our world to an international few, that dont take prisoners and not not willing to negotiate. I know that death is pumped into our homes twenty-four seven, through the picture and the weapon. I know that evil is only good if you give it something it wants. I know the stories, I know the ending, I know the beginning and I know the way. I know that I commit my life to making a deal with everyone, so that there can be peace. I know my father, who ran on 50 chairs, and had Satan in his eyes. I know that I have him and I know I do not repeat others mistakes. I know I have my name and my history. I know that I was prepared all my life for this moment. I know that I will try to evade destruction. I know that this world does not end in violence, but begins in peace. I know that the only way to have peace, is to forgive up to this point. I know that we all can begin a new. I know that evolution can kill an evil that is irrelevant. I know that improvement is necessary for each of us. I know that millions have been killed by religion. I know that all religion is the worship of man. I know that faith is ever-lasting in a committed soul. I know that every human being is equal and capable of the same results. I know that no one is better than me, at being me. I know that if I have to chose to walk the walk that brings God back to Earth, then I am willing, even if I have to forget all I know about evil that has been done. I know that I am from royalty, I know that I am from the line of David. I know that I am from the Tuatha Dé Danaan. I know that I am nothing. I know that if a temple is built, it will try to be taken over by evil, then the return will be possible. So, what do you do when a story says the one who brings peace is a devil? I know my name. My name is Michael Ruark; as in Michael R-U-Ark, which all my life made me think of Michael the Archangel. Michael is from the Hebrew name מִיכָאֵל (Mikha’el) meaning “who is like God?”. Michael is one of the seven archangels in Hebrew tradition and the only one identified as an archangel in the Bible. In the Book of Revelation, he is portrayed as the leader of heaven’s armies, and thus is considered the patron saint of soldiers. The archangel Michael has long been recognized by both Jewish and Christian scholars as having a special guardian relationship to Israel (Dan. 10:12-13). In relation to Israel, he is called “Michael, your prince” (Dan. 10:21) of whom it is said, he “holdeth” (Hebrew, Chazaq), which can mean “to bind” or “restrain,” so that Michael has a restraining (or hindering) ministry on behalf of Israel. Michael is the protector of Israel and a “prince of the first rank”. “At that time Michael, the great prince who protects your people, will arise.” In view of this, Michael is seen as playing an important role as the protector of Israel, and later of the Christian Church. Ruach (Ruark) is a Hebrew word meaning “wind” or “spirit”. The breath of God, Ruach, conjured up for the Jews a picture of the powerful energy of God in the world. Ruach creates, inspires, gives leadership, empowers, reveals God’s word and gives creative ability. In its prophetic form as Ruach HaKodesh it is derived from the Talmud equating Divine Inspiration, and a Divine Voice as the word used to refer to the Spirit of God, or Holy Spirit, in the Tanakh. The Hebrew language phrase ruach ha-kodesh (Hebrew: רוח הקודש, “holy spirit” also transliterated ruaḥ ha-qodesh) is a term used in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and Jewish writings to refer to the Spirit of YHWH (רוח יהוה). It literally means “the spirit of holiness.” Ruach Elohim, the breathing, blowing, surging phenomenon, is neither natural (wind) nor spiritual (spirit) but both in one; it is the creative breathing that brings both nature and the spirit into one being. The movement from God that precedes all differentiation undifferentially touch the hearing heart. Stands as a great, unformulated, latent theological principle, expressed only by implication. Ruach Elohim, Hebrew RVCh ALHIM “spirit of God,” in the Kabbalistic tradition this is the term for the divine spirit. The numerical sum of the letters of the two words equal 300, which is the number of the Hebrew letter Shin. This latter fact plays an important role in the gematria which give the letter, Shin, its symbolism and meaning.

I know that I will try my best.

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Ratification of International Human Rights Treaties – Israel

August 17, 1949: The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260. The convention entered into force on 12 January 1951. It defines genocide in legal terms, and is the culmination of years of campaigning by lawyer Raphael Lemkin. All participating countries are advised to prevent and punish actions of genocide in war and in peacetime. Ratified on March 9, 1950.

December 8, 1949: The First Geneva Convention, for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, is one of four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. It defines “the basis on which rest the rules of international law for the protection of the victims of armed conflicts.” The Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field was adopted in 1864. It was significantly revised and replaced by the 1906 version, the 1929 version, and later the First Geneva Convention of 1949. It is inextricably linked to the International Committee of the Red Cross, which is both the instigator for the inception and enforcer of the articles in these conventions. Ratified on July 6, 1951.

December 8, 1949: The Second Geneva Convention, for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. The Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea was first adopted in 1906, after the Russo-Japanese war, but was significantly updated and replaced by the Second Geneva Convention of 1949. It adapts the main protections of the First Geneva Convention to combat at sea. Ratified on July 6, 1951.

December 8, 1949: The Third Geneva Convention, relative to the treatment of prisoners of war, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. The Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War was first adopted in 1929, but significantly revised and replaced by the Third Geneva Convention of 1949. It defines humanitarian protections for prisoners of war. There are 196 state parties to the Convention. Ratified on July 6, 1951.

December 8, 1949: The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, commonly referred to as the Fourth Geneva Convention and abbreviated as GCIV, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. It was adopted in August 1949, and defines humanitarian protections for civilians in a war zone. Ratified on July 6, 1951.

August 1, 1951: The Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (CRSR) is a United Nations multilateral treaty that defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum. The Convention also sets out which people do not qualify as refugees, such as war criminals. The Convention also provides for some visa-free travel for holders of travel Documents issued under the convention. Ratified on October 1, 1951.

October 1, 1954: The Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons is a 1960 United Nations multilateral treaty that aims to protect stateless individuals. Ratified December 23, 1958.

August 10, 1961: The Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness is a 1961 United Nations multilateral treaty whereby sovereign states agree to reduce the incidence of statelessness. The Convention was originally intended as a Protocol to the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, while the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons was adopted to cover stateless persons who are not refugees and therefore not within the scope of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.

March 7, 1966: The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is a United Nations convention. A third-generation human rights instrument, the Convention commits its members to the elimination of racial discrimination and the promotion of understanding among all races. Controversially, the Convention also requires its parties to outlaw hate speech and criminalize membership in racist organizations. The Convention also includes an individual complaints mechanism, effectively making it enforceable against its parties. This has led to the development of a limited jurisprudence on the interpretation and implementation of the Convention. The convention was adopted and opened for signature by the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 1965, and entered into force on 4 January 1969. As of April 2013, it has 87 signatories and 177 parties. Ratified on January 3, 1979.

December 19, 1966: The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and in force from 3 January 1976. It commits its parties to work toward the granting of economic, social, and cultural rights (ESCR) to the Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories and individuals, including labour rights and the right to health, the right to education, and the right to an adequate standard of living. As of 2014, the Covenant had 162 parties. A further seven countries, including the United States of America, had signed but not yet ratified the Covenant. Ratified on October 3, 1991.

December 19, 1966: The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 16 1966, and in force from March 23, 1976. It commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial. As of April 2014, the Covenant has 74 signatories and 168 parties. Ratified on October 3, 1991.

July 17, 1980: The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as an international bill of rights for women, it came into force on September 3, 1981 and has been ratified by 188 states. Ratified October 3, 1981.

July 21, 1980: The Protection of Diplomats Convention (formally, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents) is a United Nations anti-terrorism treaty that codifies some of the traditional principles on the necessity of protecting diplomats.

November 19, 1980: The Hostages Convention (formally the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages) is a United Nations treaty by which states agree to prohibit and punish hostage taking. The treaty includes definitions of “hostage” and “hostage taking” and sets out the principle of aut dedere aut judicare—that a party to the treaty must prosecute a hostage taker if no other state requests his or her extradition for prosecution of the same crime.

October 22, 1986: The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (United Nations Convention against Torture) is an international human rights instrument, under the review of the United Nations, that aims to prevent torture and cruel, inhuman degrading treatment or punishment around the world. The Convention requires states to take effective measures to prevent torture within their borders, and forbids states to transport people to any country where there is reason to believe they will be tortured. Ratified on October 3, 1991.

July 30, 1990: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC, CROC, or UNCRC) is a human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children. The Convention defines a child as any human being under the age of eighteen, unless the age of majority is attained earlier under a state’s own domestic legislation. Ratified on October 3, 1991.

January 22, 1999: The Terrorist Bombings Convention (formally the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings) is a 1997 United Nations treaty designed to criminalise terrorist bombings. The convention describes terrorist bombings as the unlawful and intentional use of explosives in public places with intention to kill, to injure, or to cause extensive destruction to compel a government or an international organisation to do or to abstain from doing some act. Ratified in February 10, 2003.

July 11, 2000: The Terrorist Financing Convention (formally, the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism) is a 1999 United Nations treaty designed to criminalise acts of financing terrorist activities. The convention also seeks to promote police and judicial co-operation to prevent, investigate and punish the financing of such acts. As of August 2013, the treaty has been ratified by 186 states; in terms of universality, it is therefore one of the most successful anti-terrorism treaties in history. Ratified in February 10, 2003.

November 14, 2001: The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict is an international treaty whereby states agree to (1) prohibit the conscription into the military of children under the age of 18 and (2) ensure that military volunteers under the age of 18 are exempted from taking a direct part in hostilities. The United Nations General Assembly adopted the treaty as a supplementary protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child by resolution 54/263 on 25 May 2000. The protocol came into force on 12 February 2002. The protocol requires that ratifying governments ensure that while their armed forces can accept volunteers below the age of 18, they cannot be conscripted and “States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that members of their armed forces who have not attained the age of 18 years do not take a direct part in hostilities”. Non-state actors and guerrilla forces are forbidden from recruiting anyone under the age of 18 for any purpose. As of May 2014, 156 states are party to the protocol and another 17 states have signed but not ratified it.

Ratified: Convention against Discrimination in Education is a multilateral treaty adopted by UNESCO in 14 December 1960 in Paris aiming to combat segregation in the field of education. The Convention also ensures the right to use or teach their own languages for national minorities. and prohibits any reservation. It has entered into force in 1962. There is an additional Protocol Instituting a Conciliation and Good offices Commission, adopted in 1962 and entering force in 1968.

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The Key

TempleMount

temple map1

The two monoliths gate posts inside the present Golden Gate belong to the earliest gate built here during the First Temple period. These still existing gate posts were part of the rebuilt gate of the Second Temple period, namely the Shushan Gate. This means that the entrance level of the Shushan Gate was the same as at the First Temple period. The arch found by James Fleming in a tomb in front of the Golden Gate belonged, in my opinion, to a Herodian stairway leading up from the street level to this gate.

The Golden Gate (Sha’ar Harachamim, Gate of Mercy) of Jerusalem’s Old City wall has special significance on Yom Kippur, the Jewish Day of Atonement. If the gate were opened, it would lead directly onto the Temple Plaza. The outside of the gate would open to the Kidron Valley and the Mount of Olives beyond. In Talmudic literature the gate was also known as the Shushan Gate because of its eastern direction (toward the Persian city of Shushan) and perhaps because of the role played by the Persian leader Cyrus in the Jews’ return to Jerusalem after the Babylonian exile.

Unlike most of Jerusalem’s other gates, the Golden Gate was originally built at least a millennium before Suleiman the Magnificent rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem in 1540. Indeed, some archeologists believe that the original gate, dating back to Herod’s construction or even Nehemiah’s period (440 BCE), still exists beneath the current gate. Perhaps because of the great religious significance of the gate to Jews and Christians as the Messiah’s route into Jerusalem, it is believed Suleiman sealed the gate and permitted the construction of a Muslim cemetery in front of the gate.

The Quest, p. 109: “Inside the gateway, two large monolithic gateposts have survived. The northern one is 15 feet (4.5 m) high while the height of the southern one is 12 feet (3.5 m). The top of the southernmost post is level with the top of an ancient stone course that can still be seen in the Eastern Wall to the immediate south of the Golden Gate.

The second post is one stone course higher. This indicates that the gateposts and stone courses were built as part of the same construction. We shall see later that this masonry dates from the First Temple period (see pp.174-6). The distance between the two surviving gateposts is approximately 29 feet (8.5 m). This is too wide for a single opening and therefore a central post would have had to be inserted in the middle of the gate. As Herod left the original East Wall untouched, this gate would have remained in its original form.”
pp.177-8: “The top of these monoliths does not line up with the stone courses of the gate; thus we must conclude that these gateposts are older than the gate itself. The eastern faces of the monoliths appear to be set in the same line as the ancient stone courses on either side of the Golden Gate.

We have also pointed out that the level of the top of the southern monolith coincides with that of the ancient masonry on the south side of the Golden Gate, while the top of the northern monolith is one stone course higher than the stones to the north of the gate (see illustration, p. 109). These monolithic gateposts are therefore part of the earliest wall section of the Temple Mount walls. As no remains of any other pre-Herodian eastern gateway are known, it follows that the site of the Golden Gate is the only possible location for the earlier Shushan Gate.”

TempleEast1

line of sight

The level of the top of the Mount of Olives (810 m. above sea level) is 75 m. (246 feet) higher than the Temple platform (735 m.). The sill of the Golden Gate is located some 21 m. (70 feet) lower than the Temple platform. There is a direct line of vision from the top of the Mount of Olives to the entrance to the Temple through the Nicanor Gate, while the walls of the Court of the Women were kept low (see illustration below).

jlm_herod_nicanor_gate_m01-copy 1

 

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